some great information Visit this pageexternal image e167.jpgKHAL TEKE HORSE

The Akhal-Teke is a horse breed from Turkmenistan , where they are a national emblem. They are noted for their speed and for endurance on long marches. These "golden-horses" are adapted to severe climatic conditions and are thought to be one of the oldest surviving horse breeds. There are currently about 3,500 Akhal-Tekes in the world, mostly in Turkmenistan and Russia, although they are also found throughout Europe, Australia, and North America.
The breed became popular with the Russians, who established a breeding population at their state stud farms. Many Akhal-Tekes were bred at the Treks Stud in the northern Caucasus Mountains, and later moved with the head breeder Vladimir Petrovich Shamborant to the Dagestan Studfarm.
Breed characteristics
The Akhal-Teke typically stands between 14.2 and 16 hands (58 and 64 inches, 147 and 163 cm). These horses are famous for those individuals who have a golden buckskin or palomino color with a distinctive metallic sheen. A number of other colors are recognized, however, including bay, black, chestnut, palomino, cremello, perlino, and grey. The Akhal-Teke's most notable and defining characteristic is the natural metallic bloom of its coat. This is especially seen in the palominos and buckskins, as well as the lighter bays, although some horses "shimmer" more than others. The color pattern is thought to have been used as camouflage in the desert. The cream gene that produces buckskin and palomino is a dilution gene that also produces the occasional cremelli and perlino. Akhal-Tekes are not thought to carry the dun gene or roan gene.
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Cremello-colored Akhal Teke
The Akhal-Teke has a fine head with a straight or slightly convex profile, and long ears. It also has almond-shaped eyes. The mane and tail are usually sparse. The long back is lightly muscled, and is coupled to a flat croup and long, upright neck. The Akhal-Teke possesses sloping shoulders and thin skin. These horses have strong, tough, but fine limbs. They have a rather slim body and ribcage (like an equine version of the greyhound), with a deep chest. The conformation is typical of horses bred for endurance over distance. The Akhal-Tekes are lively and alert, with a reputation for bonding to only one person.
The breed is tough and resilient, having adapted to the harshness of Turkmenistan lands, where horses must live without much food or water. This has also made the horses good for sport. The breed has great endurance, as shown in 1935 when a group of Turkmen riders rode the 2500 miles from Ashgabat to Moscow in 84 days, including a three-day crossing of 235 miles of desert without water. The Akhal-Teke is also known for its form and grace as a show jumper.


Breed history

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The conformation of the Akhal-Teke

The ancestors of the breed may date back to animals living 3,000 years ago, known by a number of names, but most often as theNisean horse. The precise ancestry is difficult to trace, however, because prior to about 1600 AD, horse breeds in the modern sense did not exist; rather, horses were identified by local strain or type.

According to some, the Akhal-Teke were kept hidden by their tribesmen. The area where the breed first appeared, the Turkmenistan desert Kara Kum, is a rocky, flat desert surrounded by mountains. Others claim that the horses are descendants of the mounts of Mongol raiders of the thirteenth and fourteenth century.

The breed is very similar to the now-extinct Turkoman Horse, once bred in neighboring Iran. Some historians believe that the two are different strains of the same breed. It is a disputed "chicken or egg" question whether the influential Arabian was either the ancestor of the breed or was developed out of this breed. It is also possible that the so-called "hot blooded" breeds, the Arabian, Turkoman, Akhal-Teke, and the Barb all developed from a single "oriental horse" predecessor.

Tribesmen of Turkmenistan first used the horses for raiding. They selectively bred the horses, keeping records of the pedigrees via an oral tradition.The horses were called "Argamaks" by the Russians, and were cherished by the nomads.

In 1881, Turkmenistan became part of the Russian Empire. The tribes fought with the tsar, eventually losing. The Russian general Kuropatkin developed a fondness for horses he had seen while fighting the tribesmen, founded a breeding farm after the war and renamed the horses, "Akhal-Tekes", after the Teke Turkmen tribe that lived near the Akhal oasis. The Russians printed the first studbook in 1941, which included 287 stallions and 468 mares.

The Akhal-Teke has had influence on many breeds, possibly including the Thoroughbred through the Byrely Turk (which may have been Akhal-Teke, an Arabian, or a Turkoman Horse), one of the three foundation stallions of the breed. Three other stallions, known as the "Lister Turk", the "White Turk", and the "Yellow Turk" also contributed to the foundation of the Thoroughbred breed. The Trakehner has also been influenced by the Akhal-Teke, most notably by the stallion, Turkmen-Atti, as have the Russian breeds Don, Budyonny, Karabair, and Karabakh.



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The breed suffered greatly when the Soviet Union required horses to be slaughtered for meat, even though local Turkmen refused to eat them. At one point only 1,250 horses remained and export from the Soviet Union was banned. The government of Turkmenistan now uses the horses as diplomatic presents as well as auctioning a few to raise money for improved horse breeding programs. Horses are not geldedin Central Asia.
In the early twentieth century, crossbreeding between the Thoroughbred and the Akhal-Teke took place, aiming to create a faster long-distance racehorse. The Anglo Akhal-Tekes were not so resilient however, as their Akhal-Teke ancestors, and many died due to the harsh conditions of Central Asia. After the 2,600 mile endurance race from Ashkabad to Moscow in 1935, when the purebreds finished in much better condition than the part-breds, the studbook management decided to consider all crossbred horses born after 1936, as not purebred. Horses with English Thoroughbred ancestors born prior to that date were allowed to remain inside the studbook (e.g. 044 Tillyakush, grandson of Thoroughbred Burlak or 831 Makh, granddaughter of Thoroughbred Blondelli, and great-great-granddaughter of Thoroughbred Junak). Since 1973, all foals must be blood typed to be accepted in the stud book in order to protect the purity. A stallion not producing the right type of horse may be removed. The stud book was closed in 1975.

Uses of the Akhal-Teke


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Akhal-Teke free jumping

Because of the genetic prepotency of the ancient breed, the Akhal-Teke has been used for developing new breeds, most recently the Nez Perce Horse (Appaloosa x Akhal-Teke). The Akhal-Teke, due to its natural athleticism, can be a sport horse, good at dressage, show jumping, eventing, racing, and endurance riding. A noted example was the Akhal-Teke stallion, Absent, who won the Prix de Dressage at the 1960 Summer Olympics in Rome, while being ridden by Sergei Filatov. He went again with Filatov to win the bronze individual medal in Tokyo in the 1964 Summer Olympics, and won the Soviet team gold medal under Ivan Kalita at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico city.

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REFERENCES



Sultan KARADUMAN
2/D 101010098













lzheimer's disease is a general term for the brain disease that is irreversible memory loss and other intellectual abilities serious enough to interfere with daily life. Although the majority of people with Alzheimer are 65 and older , it is not just disease of old age.
This disease is named after Dr.Alois Alzheimer.In 1906, Dr. Alzheimer noticed changes in the brain tissue of a woman who had died of unusual mental illness. Her problems included memory loss , language problems and unpredictable behaviour. After she died , he examined her brain and found many abnormal clumps and tangled bundles of fibers.
Although we still do not know how the Alzheimer's disease process begins , it seems likely that damage to the brain starts a decade or more before problems become evident. During the preclinical stage of Alzheimer's disease ,people are free of symptoms , but toxic changes are taking place in the brain. Healthy neurons begin to work less efficiently. Over time , neurons lose the ability to function and communicate with each other and eventually they die.
youtube

Here are 10 warning signs of the Alzheimer's disease:

1.Memory loss which disturb the daily life
This is one of the most common signs of Alzheimer. Patients forget recently learned information , important dates and events , ask for the same information again and again , rely on memory aides ( such as agenda , notes ). Even they may forget their children's name or can not recognize them.

2.Challenges in planning or solving problems
They may have difficulty in solving problems and concentrating on something
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3.Difficulty completing daily tasks
They can find daily tasks hard to do, such as driving , remembering the rules of something which they do in leisure time.

4.Confusion with time or place
They can lose the comprehension of time and date , sometimes, they can forget where they are or which day is today.

5.Difficulty understanding visual images
They can have difficulty reading , determining color.they may pass a mirror and think someone else in mirror, in perception.

6.New problems with words in speaking or writing
They may have trouble following or joining a conversation. They can stop in the middle of the conversation and they do not know how to go on. They may have problems with finding right words and names.

7.Misplacing things and losing the ability to retrace steps
They can put things in unusual places or they may lose them. Sometimes, they even accuse others of stealing.

8.Decreased or poor judgement
They may make poor judgement about issues and they may pay less attention to their pscyhical appearance.

9.Withdrawal from work or social activities
They may give up their hobbies , social activities , projects or sports. Because of their disease , they may not want to be social.

10.Changes in mood and personalities
They can become more suspicious , confused ,depressed and fearful. They can be upset very easily in daily life.

Alzheimer has no current cure, but treatments for symptoms are avaible and research continues. Current treatments can temporarily slow the the worsening of symptoms and improve the quality of their life.Today ,there is a world wide effort to find better ways to treat the disease.

In this article, I want you to brief information about alzheimer. This article is just summary, there are many things about this disease. I can say it is very bad disease like other disease. They can even forget to take a breath.It is really unbelievable. 2 weeks ago, I read Turn of Mind ( by Alice Laplante ) which is about a woman has alzheimer's disease.I advice you to read it.
Thanks.

References
www.nih.gov./alzheimer.com
www.alz.org
www.youtube.com

Hülya KÜÇÜK 2/A 101010030





external image 32304.gifneurysm is an abnormal widening or ballooning of a portion of an artery due to weakness in the wall of the blood vessel.

A brain (cerebral) aneurysm is a bulging, weak area in the wall of an artery that supplies blood to the brain. In most cases, a brain aneurysm causes no symptoms and goes unnoticed. In rare cases, the brain aneurysm ruptures, releasing blood into the skull and causing a stroke.

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What causes a brain aneurysm?

A person may inherit the tendency to form aneurysms, or aneurysms may develop because of hardening of the arteries (atherosclerosis) and aging. Some risk factors that can lead to brain aneurysms can be controlled, and others can't. The following risk factors may increase your risk of developing an aneurysm or, if you already have an aneurysm, may increase your risk of it rupturing:

  • Family history. People who have a family history of brain aneurysms are more likely to have an aneurysm than those who don't.

  • Previous aneurysm. People who have had a brain aneurysm are more likely to have another.

  • Gender. Women are more likely to develop a brain aneurysm or to suffer a subarachmoid hemorrhage.

  • Race. African Americans are more likely than whites to have a subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  • . The risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage is greater in people with a history of high blood pressure(hypertension).

  • smokingIn addition to being a cause of hypertension, the use of cigarettes may greatly increase the chances of a brain aneurysm rupturing.

What are the symptoms?

Most brain aneurysms cause no symptoms and may only be discovered during tests for another, usually unrelated, condition. In other cases, an unruptured aneurysm will cause problems by pressing on areas in the brain. When this happens, the person may suffer from severe headaches, blurred vision, changes in speech, and neck pain, depending on what areas of the brain are affected and how bad the aneurysm is.

Symptoms of a ruptured brain aneurysm often come on suddenly.

  • A sudden, severe headache that is different from past headaches.

  • Neck pain.

  • Nausea and vomiting.

  • Sensitivity to light.

  • Fainting or loss of consciousness.

  • Seizures.

Cerebral (brain) aneurysm diagnosis:

Patients who suddenly have a very severe headache, or other symptoms which may indicate a ruptured cerebral aneurysm will most likely undergo some tests to find out whether there is any subarachnoid hemorrhage or some other type of stroke. If bleeding is detected, the emergency care team will determine whether an aneurysm was the cause. Patients who do not have a ruptured cerebral aneurysm, but have symptoms such as pain behind the eye, changes in vision, or paralysis on one side of their face, will also undergo tests. These tests may include:

  • A CT (computerized tomography) scan - X-rays are used to create a 3-dimensional picture of the target area. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) angiography is highly accurate in depicting intracranial aneurysms.

  • A cerebrospinal fluid test - anyone who had a subarachnoid hemorrhage will probably have red blood cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (the fluid surrounding the brain and spine). Patients who have symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm but had a CT scan which did not show any evidence of bleeding will undergo this cerebrospinal fluid test; called a lumbar puncture or spinal tap.

  • MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) scan - this test is better than a CT scan at detecting a ruptured aneurysm.

Cerebral arteriogram (cerebral angiogram) - a catheter is inserted into a large artery, usually entering the patient in his/her groin, and threads past the heart to the brain arteries. A special dye goes into the arteries via the catheter which shows up in X-ray images - the doctor can then see details about the conditions of the arteries and the site of a ruptured aneurysm. As this quite an invasive procedure, it is only generally used when other procedures have not provided enough data

Cerebral (brain) aneurysm treatment:

Patients with brain aneurysms have two options if the aneurysm has ruptured: 1. Surgical clipping. 2. Endovascular coiling.

  • Surgical clipping - the aneurysm is closed off. The surgeon removes a section of the skull to get to the aneurysm and finds the blood vessel that feeds it. A tiny metal clip is placed on the neck of the aneurysm to block off the blood flow to it.

  • Endovascular coiling - a catheter is inserted, usually in the groin, and is threaded through the body to the brain where the aneurysm is located. A guide wire is used to push a soft platinum wire through the catheter and into the aneurysm. The wire coils up inside the aneurysm and disrupts the blood flow, making it clot. The clotting of the blood effectively seals off the aneurysm from the artery.

  • Painkillers - usually for headaches.

  • Calcium channel blockers - these stop calcium for entering cells of the blood vessel walls. They reduce the amount of widening and narrowing of blood vessels; often a complication of a ruptured aneurysm.

  • A vassopressor - this is an injected drug which raises blood pressure; widens blood vessels which have remained stubbornly narrowed. The aim is to prevent stroke.

  • Anti-seizure drugs - seizures may occur after an aneurysm has ruptures.

  • A ventricular catheter - this can reduce the pressure on the brain caused by hydrocephalus (excess cerebrospinal fluid). The catheter, which is placed in the spaces filled with fluid inside the brain, drains the excess liquid into an external bag. It may be necessary to place a shunt system - a shunt (flexible silicone rubber tube) and a valve. The shunt system is a drainage channel that starts in the brain and ends in the patient's abdominal cavity.

  • Rehabilitation therapy - sometimes a subarachnoid hemorrhage causes brain damage, resulting in impaired speech and bodily movements. Rehabilitation therapy helps the patient relearn vital skills.

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Unruptured cerebral aneurysm treatment

The unruptured cerebral aneurysm can be sealed off with surgical clipping or endovascular coiling. Deciding on this is not easy as the risks are often equal, and sometimes higher than the potential benefits. The following will help the surgeon determine what to do:

  • Exactly where the aneurysm is.

  • How big the aneurysm is.

  • The patient's age.

  • The patient's general state of health

  • Whether the patient has a family history of ruptured aneurysms.

  • Whether the patient has any congenital conditions which may raise the risk of the aneurysm rupturing.

Patients with hypertension (high blood pressure) need to have their condition carefully monitored - proper control of hypertension significantly reduces the likelihood of a rupture.

REFERENCES



www.webmd.com

www.medicalnewstoday.com


MERVE KAPLAN

2/C 101010089




external image 32304.gifDHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder)

is a real mental disorder that starts in childhood. It can change the way children act, think, and feel. Nearly all children are overactive and inattentive at times, but for ADHD children and their families their behavior can be extreme and disruptive.

ADHD is thought to affect between 3 and 5% of the school age population. In general ADHD is estimated to be 3 or 4 times common in boys. For some there is remission at puberty but for others the condition, if untreated, continues to blight their adult life.

Generally the ADHD child is unable to concentrate, constantly moves around, and has poor school performance compared with intelligence. Their behavior at home and at school is disruptive.

What is ADHD?







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ADHD symptoms

Symptoms include excessively, consistently and involuntarily having difficulty:
  • Remaining seated when required
  • Waiting turn in group situations
  • Following instructions
  • Playing quietly
Other common symptoms include:
  • Shifting from one incomplete activity to another
  • Interrupting others
  • Engaging in physically dangerous activities without considering the consequences
Not everyone with ADHD has the same symptoms or is affected by each to the same degree. There are three types of people with ADHD:
  • Predominantly hyperactive-impulsive
  • Predominantly inattentive
  • Combined (the majority of ADHD cases)
There's also a fourth type, which doesn't fit into any of the three categories, classified as 'ADHD not otherwise specified'.
These problems are pervasive and debilitating, sometimes to the degree that daily functioning becomes extremely difficult. They can affect education and disrupt family life.
While their intellect may be normal or advanced, more than half of children with ADHD have specific learning disabilities, such as dyslexia. Coping with the symptoms can mean underachievement and poor self-esteem.
Children with ADHD are also more likely to be depressed, anxious and obsessive, and may have some problems with speech, language and coordination.
Other major behavioural disorders may accompany ADHD, including oppositional defiant disorder (arguing and intentional defying) and conduct disorder (major antisocial activity).
Hyperactivity may improve at puberty but the problems usually persist in some form throughout adult life - up to 60 per cent of children show ADHD behaviour in adulthood.

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ADHD Treatments

Since it isn't clear why children develop ADHD, it's difficult to prevent. There's also no simple screening test to identify those people carrying genes that might increase susceptibility and antenatal screening isn't available.

Although there's no cure, early diagnosis and appropriate help at home can make a big difference. Diagnosis should be made by formal testing by someone with experience of the condition, such as an educational psychologist.

The most recent guidelines from NICE(the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence) recommend that the first steps in treatment include help with behaviour and stress management, and educational support. Parents of children with mild to moderate ADHD should be offered training sessions to teach them how to cope with and manage their child's behaviour. The children themselves should be offered psychotherapy or social skills training.

The next step is medication to help children concentrate and be less disruptive, but NICE recommend that, in school-age children with moderate ADHD, drugs should only be prescribed if behaviour management strategies alone don't work. However in those children with more severe ADHD, which disrupts all aspects of their life, medication can be used as a first line treatment. NICE also says that medication should not be used at all in children under the age of five.

The most effective are stimulant drugs, such as methylphenidate (trade name Ritalin), which improve a child's ability to focus. However, the response to these drugs is variable - some children are helped more than others.

In addition, research suggests that after a couple of years on stimulants, the drugs may no longer have a significant effect. So after this period of time, children are usually offered a trial period off their drugs to see if they still need them.

Like any medication, there may be side-effects. For example, recent research has focused on possible effects on growth in some children.

Modification of diet may help some children . Support for the family is also important.

With help, many people with ADHD manage to channel their energies with dramatic success.



REFERENCES :

www.adhdnews.com


www.bbc.co.uk

www.youtube.com

www.google.com.tr



AYŞE BÜYÜKDERE

101010091

2-C



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Audrey Hepburn (4 May 1929-20 January 1993)
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Audrey Hepburn was born in Bruxelles which is a city of Belgium. Her mother was a Dutch baroness and her father was a British banker. Her parents were divorced when Audrey was one year old. When she was at the age of ten, her mother married with another man. Therefore, Audrey had to immigrate to Netherlands –which is under the Nazi invasion- with his step-father. She had a very rough time in childhood because of the war; she interested in cinema and always dreamed to being actress. After the Second World War she went to London to enroll a ballet school and started to modeling for a short time. She was just 22 years old when she performed in her first film “Young Wives Tale” (1951). She started to be famous due to her beauty and grace that affected all people who watched her in movie. After playing films such as "Monte Carlo Baby", "Lavender Hill Mob" and "Secret People", Audrey got her great success with the movie “Roman Holiday”. This role is her first leading role and she was starring a princess. Due to this movie, played with Gregory Peck, she won the Best Woman Actress Award in Academy Awards.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p-vR7D21wqI This award made her a star and she consecutively took part in successful production without stopping. In 1954, she also got nomination of Academy Awards due the “Sabrina” which was directed by auteur director Billy Wilder and performed by another famous actor Humphrey Bogart. She performed in many movies such as; "War And Peace", "Funny Face", "Love in the Afternoon", "Green Mansions" , "The Unforgiven", “My Fair Lady”, “Breakfast at Tiffany’s ” and “Wait Until Dark”.
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Besides her successful carrier, she was also popular with her private life. Her problem marriages, darlings were always watched by the media.

Audrey Hepburn suspended acting career and only performed in special projects. She received many awards during her acting career. She was nominated for the Academy Awards 4 times except from the won in 1954 Roman Holiday. She also received awards from BAFTA and Golden Globe 2 times and had nominated for these award twice. She was 64 years old when she died of appendiceal cancer at her home in Switzerland, 1993.
References
http://www.audreyhepburn.com/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audrey_Hepburn

Bahar Aksu 2/A



external image Letter-A-black-icon.png ATLANTIS

Have you ever heard the name of Atlantis. This is also called as The Lost City. According to Greek philosopher Plato, Atlantis takes place beyond The Sultan of Hercul, Atlantis was an ancient civilization struggled to subjugate Western Europe and most part of Africa but they didn’t succeed and went to the bottom of Ocean.

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Some evidences show that the story of the lost continent of Atlantis begins in 355 BC, with the Greek philosopher Plato. Plato, who used dialogues between characters to express his views, had planned to write a trilogy of books that would discuss the nature of man, the creation of the world and the story of Atlantis, among other things. This trilogy was never completed, but part of it has survived. Some scientists are available dealing with this today.
In his book called Timaeus, a character named Kritias mentions Atlantis, a powerful empire that was located to the west of the "Pillars of Hercules" (the Straight of Gibraltar, as we call it now) on an island in the Atlantic ocean. This empire was a marvel of architecture that housed a brilliant civilization.

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The capital city was composed of a series of concentric walls and canals and at the center there was a hill where you could find a temple to Poseidon with a gold statue of the God inside, showing him driving six winged horses.
But 9000 years before the time of Plato, the gods decided to destroy the people of Atlantis who had become corrupted and greedy. So, a violent earthquake shook the land, giant waves rolled over the shores and the island sank into the sea, never to be seen again.

Now, one might argue that this is nothing but a fairytale, a disturbingly beautiful story that Plato came up with to prove his point. But Plato's characters refer to the story of Atlantis as "genuine history" and it being "within the realm of fact". Plus, Plato seems to get too detailed for a place that doesn't exist. The only thing that might have proven this tale fake or based on true events is the writings of Aristotle, Plato's student, who historian Strabo quotes saying that Atlantis was simply created by Plato to make a point. But alas, those writings were lost eons ago.

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What about Atlantis’ location? Some researchers claim that the lost city Atlantis held between Syria and Cyprus. But some researchers stand for an opinion that Cyprus had been sited at the center of Atlantis. Moreover they claim that Cyprus is the last piece of Atlantis above ground.

If we make assumption that Atlantis was a real place, it seems logical that it could be found west of the Straight of Gibraltar near the Azores Islands. In 1882 a man named Ignatus Donnely published a book titled Atlantis, the Antediluvian World. Donnely, an American politician, had come to the belief that Plato’s story represented actual historical fact. He located Atlantis in the middle of the Atlantic Ocean suggesting the Azores Islands represented what remained of the highest mountain peaks. Donnely said he had studied zoology and geology and had come to the conclusion that civilization itself had begun with the Atlantians established colonies in places like ancient Egypt and Peru. Donnely’s book became a world-wide best seller but researchers could not take Donnely’s theories seriously as he offered no poof for his ideas.

Are there any other candidates for the location of Atlantis? Yes people estimate for location of Atlantis such as Switzerland, in the middle of Europe, and New Zealand, in the Pacific Ocean etc.


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It is said that there was a volcano whose name was Santorini blew itself apart in a massive eruption around 1500 BC. After Santorini had erupted, a huge tsunami was created which destroyed all around cities and civilizations.
Because of the fact that there was a link between the volcano Santorini and Atlantis, Santorini’s explosion severely damaged Atlantis. After explosion, created tsunami touch the heart of Atlantis and it went go to the bottom of ocean so Atlantis is called as The Lost city.


References:
http://www.greek-islands.us/santorini/atlantis-the-lost-city/

http://www.unmuseum.org/atlantis.htm




2/A
Mehmet KANDIRMAZ



ACUPUNCTURE


Acupuncture,which originated in China over 5000 years ago, is a branch of Traditional Chinese Medicine. It is an alternative methodology that promotes natural healing of the body and improves functioning. This is done by inserting thin,solid needles into acupuncture points in the skin.external image acupuncture.png?__SQUARESPACE_CACHEVERSION=1301178121718

Acupuncture points are holes that allow entry into channels called acupuncture meridians in which qi and blood flow. There are 2000 acupuncture points in the human body.



HOW DOES ACUPUNCTURE WORK?


The modern science explain the functions of acupuncture in two ways.
First, inserting needles in acupuncture points in the skin stimulates the nervous system to release chemicals in the muscles, spinal cord and brain and then, these chemicals trigger other chemicals and so the body has a healthy state.
Second,according to Traditional Chinese Medicine, the body has two opposing and inseparable forces which strikes a balance: YIN nad YANG. YIN represents negative force, that is, it represents the cold, slow or passive principle, while YANG represents positive force,that is, it represents the hot, excited or active principle.The aim of acupuncture is to keep YIN and YANG balance, because YIN YANG balance represents the healthy state of body but if there is an imbalance between YIN and YANG, it represents a disease in Chinese medicine.



Here is five fields in which acupuncture is used.

ACUPUNCTURE FOR PAIN
It was found that acupuncture is very effective for treatment pain such as migraines, neck disorders and tension-type headaches and peripheral joint osteoarthritis but there is a conflicting evidence that acupuncture can be both useful and harmful for osteoarthritis of knee.

ACUPUNCTURE FOR NAUSEA AND VOMITING
Inserting needles particular acupuncture points for nausea and vomiting is traditionally thought to relieve nausea.Acupuncture is more effective than antiemetic drugs in treating nausea and vomiting.

ACUPUNCTURE FOR FERTILITY AND CHILDBIRTH
Acupuncture is effective in fertility, pregnancy and childbirth, attributing various conditions of health and difficulty with the flow of qi through various meridians.Acupuncture may increase the live birth rate.

ACUPUNCTURE FOR SMOKING
Acupuncture assists in giving up smoking. It strikes a balance in the body, and so acupuncture helps detoxification after quitting smoking. Also acupuncture reduces nicotine and this makes easier giving up smoking.

ACUPUNCTURE FOR SNORING
Traditional Chinese Medicine's aim is treating all of the issues related to snoring. In Chinese medicine, there are basic strategies that can be achieved thanks to herbs, acupuncture and lifestyle adjustments and a combination of these can be very effective in treatment of snoring.



REFERENCES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acupuncture

http://www.youtube.com/

http://www.howdoesacupuncturework.com/

http://skepdic.com/acupuncture.html


GÜLSEN KEPOĞLU
2/B 101010051







external image kredi-sozlugu-a.jpgdolf Hitler was born on April 20th,1889 in the small town of Brauau Am Inn,Austria.His father's name is Alois Hitler and his mother's name is Klara Pölzl.He was the fourth of six children to his parent.His father was a customs officer.
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His first school was in the town where he was born.Then,he attended a school in Linz.While his father wanted him to be a customs officer like himself,Hitler wanted to be an artist.So,they had a troubled relationship.Hitler's father died of tuberculosis when he was thirteen,then when he was eighteen,he lost his mother.With his desire of becoming a painter,he attended the exam of Viyana Academy of Fine Arts.But he failed.

Hitler came from Viyana to Munich.When First World War began,he became volunteer for attending to Bavyere army.After Germans were beaten,he joined a hidden group which was called as German Worker Party.This party was established by Hitler's friend Feder and six mens.In a short time,he became the leader of this party and changed its name as NSDAP (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiter Partei/ The National Socialist German Workers' Party).The funs of this party were called as Nazi.The funs of the party called Hitler as Füller which means leader.


external image 200px-Bundesarchiv_Bild_183-C05557%2C_Berlin%2C_Sepp_Dietrich%2C_Hitler%2C_Heinrich_Himmler.jpg
With the assistance of party staff, Hitler drafted a party program consisting of twenty-five points. As a result of the great studies, the party became successful.Hitler changed the constitution.He banned other parties.He transformed into advantage the unemployment problem.
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After the successful term of the party, in Second World War Germans failed. Several attempts were made on Hitler's life during the war, but none was successful. As the war appeared to be inevitably lost and his hand-picked lieutenants, seeing the futility, defied his orders, he killed himself on April 30, 1945. His long-term mistress and new bride, Eva Braun, joined him in suicide. By that time, one of his chief objectives was achieved with the annihilation of two-thirds of European Jewry.

REFERENCES:
http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Adolf_Hitler
http://www.kimkimdir.gen.tr/kimkimdir.php?id=3543
http://remember.org/guide/Facts.root.hitler.html

LEYLA ÖZDEMİR
101010096 2/D







external image Autism-Epidemic.jpg What is autism?




Autism is a severe developmental disorder that begins at birth or within the first two-and-a-half years of life. Most autistic children are perfectly normal in appearance, but spend their time engaged in puzzling and disturbing behaviors which are markedly different from those of typical children. . Less severe cases may be diagnosed with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) or with Asperser’s Syndrome (these children typically have normal speech, but they have many "autistic" social and behavioral problems).

external image autism.gif Characteristic
It is distinguished not by a single symptom, but by a characteristic triad of symptoms: impairments in social interaction; impairments in communication; and restricted interests and repetitive behavior. Other aspects, such as atypical eating, are also common but are not essential for diagnosis. Autism's individual symptoms occur in the general population and appear not to associate highly, without a sharp line separating pathologically severe from common traits.


Social development

Social deficits distinguish autism and the related autism spectrum disorders from other developmental disorders. People with autism have social impairments and often lack the intuition about others that many people take for granted.

Communication

About a third to a half of individuals with autism do not develop enough natural speech to meet their daily communication needs. Differences in communication may be present from the first year of life, and may include delayed onset of babbling, unusual gestures, diminished responsiveness, and vocal patterns that are not synchronized with the caregiver. In the second and third years, autistic children have less frequent and less diverse babbling, consonants, words, and word combinations; their gestures are less often integrated with words. external image Autistic-Boy.jpg

Repetitive behavior


Autistic individuals display many forms of repetitive or restricted behavior.There is some of them here.
  • Stereotypy is repetitive movement, such as hand flapping, making sounds, head rolling, or body rocking.
  • Compulsive behavior is intended and appears to follow rules, such as arranging objects in stacks or lines.
  • Sameness is resistance to change; for example, insisting that the furniture not be moved or refusing to be interrupted.

external image autism.jpg Other symptoms

Unusual eating behavior occurs in about three-quarters of children with ASD, to the extent that it was formerly a diagnostic indicator. Selectivity is the most common problem, although eating rituals and food refusal also occur; this does not appear to result in malnutrition.









HOW TO RECOGNİZE THE EARLY SIGNS OF AUTISM?






















REFERENCES
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Autism

http://www.autism.com/fam_whatisautism.asp

http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/brain/asperger.html

http://www.medicinenet.com/pervasive_development_disorders/article.htm

http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&feature=endscreen&v=1VA6Q3vTC_o


Yasemin Merve Öztürk
2-C 101010064


ANOREXİA

isabelle-caro-anoreksiya-yuzunden-oldu_30122010103439.jpg
What is anorexia nervosa?Anorexia nervosa, commonly referred to simply as anorexia, is one type of eating disorder. More importantly, it is also a psychological disorder. Anorexia is a condition that goes beyond concern about obesity or out-of-control dieting. A person with anorexia often initially begins dieting to lose weight. Over time, the weight loss becomes a sign of mastery and control. The drive to become thinner is actually secondary to concerns about control and/or fears relating to one's body. The individual continues the ongoing cycle of restrictive eating, often accompanied by other behaviors such as excessive exercising or the overuse of diet pills to induceloss of appetite, and/or diuretics, laxatives, or enemas in order to reduce body weight, often to a point close to starvation in order to feel a sense of control over his or her body. This cycle becomes an obsession and, in this way, is similar to an addiction.


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Signs and Symptoms:

The primary sign of anorexia nervosa is severe weight loss. People with anorexia may try to lose weight by severely limiting how much food they eat. They may also exercise excessively. Some people may engage in binging and purging, similar to bulimia. They may vomit after eating or take laxatives. At the same time, the person may insist that they are overweight.
Physical Signs
  • Excessive weight loss
  • Scanty or absent menstrual periods
  • Thinning hair
  • Dry skin
  • Brittle nails
  • Cold or swollen hands and feet
  • Bloated or upset stomach
  • Downy hair covering the body
  • Low blood pressure
  • Fatigue
  • Abnormal heart rhythms
  • Osteoporosis
Psychological and Behavioral Signs
  • Distorted perception of self (insisting they are overweight when they are thin)
  • Being preoccupied with food
  • Refusing to eat
  • Inability to remember things
  • Refusing to acknowledge the seriousness of the illness
  • Obsessive-compulsive behavior
  • Depression
What To Watch For
  • Skipping meals or making excuses not to eat
  • Eating only a few foods
  • Refusing to eat in public
  • Planning and preparing elaborate meals for others but not eating
  • Constantly weighing themselves
  • Ritually cutting food into tiny pieces
  • Compulsive exercising

Causes:

No one knows exactly what causes anorexia. Medical experts agree that several factors work together in a complex fashion to lead to the eating disorder. These may include:
  • Severe trauma or emotional stress (such as the death of a loved one or sexual abuse) during puberty or prepuberty.
  • Abnormalities in brain chemistry. Serotonin, a brain chemical that's involved in depression, may play a role
  • A cultural environment that puts a high value on thin or lean bodies.
  • A tendency toward perfectionism, fear of being ridiculed or humiliated, a desire to always be perceived as being "good." A belief that being perfect is necessary in order to be loved.
  • Family history of anorexia. About one fifth of people with anorexia have a relative with an eating disorder.

Risk Factors:

  • Age and gender -- anorexia is most common in teens and young adult women.
  • Dieting
  • Weight gain
  • Unintentional weight loss
  • Puberty
  • Living in an industrialized country
  • Having depression, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) or other anxiety disorders -- OCD is present in up to two thirds of people with anorexia. OCD associated with an eating disorder is often accompanied by a compulsive ritual around food (such as cutting it into tiny pieces).
  • Participation in sports and professions that prize a lean body (such as dance, gymnastics, running, figure skating, horse racing, modeling, wrestling, acting)
  • Difficulty dealing with stress (pessimism, tendency to worry, refusal to confront difficult or negative issues)
  • History of sexual abuse or other traumatic event
  • Experiencing a big life change, such as moving or going to a new school
Treatment:The most successful treatment is a combination of psychotherapy, family therapy, and medication. It is important for the person with anorexia to be actively involved in their treatment. Many times the person with anorexia doesn't think they need any treatment. Even if they know they need treatment, anorexia is a long term challenge that may last a lifetime. People remain vulnerable to relapse when going through stressful periods of their lives.
A combination of treatments can give the person the medical, psychological, and practical support they need. Cognitive behavioral therapy, along with antidepressants, can be an effective treatment for eating disorders. Complementary and alternative therapies may help with nutritional deficiencies.
If the person's life is in danger, hospitalization may be needed, particularly under the following circumstances:
  • Continuing weight loss, in spite of outpatient treatment
  • Body mass index (BMI) -- 30% below normal. The normal range is a BMI of 19 - 24. BMI is a measurement that takes into account a person's height and weight.
  • Irregular heart rhythm
  • Severe depression
  • Suicidal tendencies
  • Low potassium levels
  • Low blood pressure
Even after some weight gain, many people with anorexia remain quite thin and the risk of relapse is very high. Several social influences may make recovery difficult:
  • Friends or family who admire how thin the person is
  • Dance instructors or athletic coaches who put a premium on having a very lean body
  • Denial on the part of parents or other family members
  • The person's belief that extreme thinness is not only normal but also attractive, and that purging is the only way to avoid becoming overweight
Involving friends, family members, and others in the treatment may be helpful.








REFERENCES
http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/anorexia-nervosa-000012.htm
http://www.medicinenet.com/anorexia_nervosa/article.htm


Nurhayat Akpolat

101010069 2-C

external image A-Harfi-2879.jpgKIO HIRATA

Have you ever heard this name before?

' AKIO HIRATA '


external image 2.jpgAkio Hirata who was born in Nagano, Japan in 1925.He desinged his first hat at the age of 14. And then he has become Japan's most influential milliner with the help of his craft. He has been teaching his this skill for 38 years from 1962 till 2000 to students and his best student is his daughter Ohko Ishida. She has also emerged her own collections like his father in 2000.


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Hirata has worked together with lots of Japan's best fashion designers such as Yohji Yamamoto, Rei Kawakubo and Hanae Mori. In 1962 he travelled to Paris to master more better this skill from Jean Barthet who is one of France’s most distinguished milliners with a group of customers containing Grace Kelly and Sophia Loren. From 1962 to 1965, he trained at Barthet's salon and perfected his craft. In 1965, he returned to Japan and founded his own house called as Haute Mode Hirata. He also has a small shop called as Salon Coco in Hiroo, in which the whole hats are handmade.

external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQVRtzHGBsqxba_6WSwjK-_YINnmrUNCPrCwb-hnTdWWoKp4GWEqmBvLMY6When Rei Kawakubo (Comme des Garçons) requested to design a hat that looks like “it had been left unused in someone’s dresser”, Hirata immediately created a hat which consisits of crushed flowers. In addition, in the same way which using the creative items for making up hats he decided to open a gallery space with roughly 4000 “ghost hats” that define the flow of activity in Nendo. Moreover, these hats serve as an contrast to the roughly 130 original Hirata hats that show the designer’s career.

external image dezeen_Akio-Hiratas-Exhibition-of-Hats-by-Nendo_02.jpg

The 4000 hats are suspended from invisible threads, surrounding visitors and appearing to hover like ghosts.

“Akio Hirata’s Exhibition of Hats”


The graphic and exhibition design for the first major Japanese artist who is internationally known as milliner Hirata Akio’s seventy years of work. For the exhibition space, we wanted to make Hirata’s hats stand out.
The mass-produced non-woven fabric hats we created for the space are the contrast of Hirata’s carefully handmade hats, and bring them into sharp relief through dramatic contrast.
Hirata oversaw the shape of these hats, which float and stream through the exhibition like ghosts or shells of the real hats exhibited. Some are exhibition stands; others become walls, ceilings to scatter light through the space. Roughly 4000 of these ‘ghost hats’ as if covered with clouds, the exhibition space softly invites visitors inside. In there visitors can find not also clear-cut paths to follow but an environment in which they can wander and discover Hirata’s creations.


external image dezeen_Akio-Hiratas-Exhibition-of-Hats-by-Nendo_01.jpg
Hats by Japanese milliner Akio Hirata appear to float between the floor and ceiling in this installation by Japanese designers Nendo.

external image dezeen_Akio-Hiratas-Exhibition-of-Hats-by-Nendo_03.jpgThe majority of the hand-made hats are white, interspersed with the occasional coloured or patterned piece.
If you want to see this exhibition in more detail even without going to see it, let's only click on the video.


References



Fatma Perihan TOSPATLI
1 b 101010042





A-Harfi-8351.jpgSKLEPION

Apollo fell in love with Koronis, but Koronis although she carried son of Apollo in her stomach betraid to Apollo and then got married with Iskhys from Arkadia. Apollo heard this and was getting very angry . Therefore he ordered having been murdered them by combusting . Koronis’s semi-burnt body was taken out of the flames by Apollo’s. Apollo made her belly reaped and took his son who was still alive . Then Apollo gave his son,Asclepius,to train to a Kentauros (half-human, half-horse),was Khrion . Asclepius, learnt the secret of to be a psycians and how to make patients recover . Thus,Asclepius made the most impossible occurance recover and takes place in the mythology as The God of Health .A health cities made in the behalf of Asclepius. It is stated by the historian the cities were established in the fifth century before christ.And this city’s name is Asklepion.

The Asklepion recieves its name from Asclepius which is the God of Health. The most important health centers in the ancient times is Asklepion, which is the first psycotherapic hospital in the world . This historic structure is in Bergama. Asklepion grew at the same time the famous physicians of a medical school and went down in history as the world's first psychiatric hospital. Radioactive properties currently had been using for health purposes by people who discovered the healing waters for centuries, these waters is gainig importance these days again . The Asklepion is one of the world's first health centers and physicians on it’s own were very famous . Not only the physicians but only the methods of cure were so popular that everyone who was ill went there .The methods of cure are music, mud baths, water and spa treatments, meditation, suggesting that the natural herbal blends, massage, aromatherapy, special diets, such as methods of gaining popularity again today, the dealer was a place of healing patients .Using the holy water and mud baths, useful drugs, herbs, as well as the music, the ceremonies and the method of treatment." People who came to Asklepion to find healing were walked "propylon"which is the holy road , were examined, the diagnosis was given ,if they were about to heal they would be allowed to enter the Asklepion.The patients who were so ill that they were about to die and pregnants never was taken inside. The treatment process began with cleaning holy water .Be praying to God for healing and offering vowed to the God. After that the patients to fell asleep and their dreams would perform the methods of treatment and process . Medicinal holy water and mud baths, useful drugs, herbs, as well as the music, the rituals and representations in the treatment form . Most of the information about these treatment methods and dream, as a result of excavations uncovered as a result of votive cups and learnt to read the inscriptions. Still flowing spring water is believed to be sacred in Asklepion. " Asklepion altitude of 108 meters was set in a sheltered area. Air and water as well as being a beautiful region believed to be sacred. Vira starting gate Pergamon Asklepion road that connects the "sacred way" known as. At the end of the road with a monumental gate and entered Asklepion "propylon ‘’ called sacred space was provided. Monumental library building located on the door, entered immediately on the right. People to enter the sanctuary used to protect from the sun and rain thanks to the surrounded with awnings(stoa).There is a semi circle theatre in the West end of the North stoa . It can accommodate 3500 people. Latrines, the public toilets , were built at the junction of western and southern galleries. Holy wells were in the focus of the sanctuary . Well fed by a spring water and well water used for drinking and bathing. It is believed that the holy water is still flowing in Asklepion. Holy wells are immediately south-west of the sleeping rooms . Bathed and wearing white clothes patients who are dedicated to offering entered sleeping rooms of theirs . Several kind of suggestions were given to them to recovering .Asklepion had 3 temples and the various treatments applied structure. "Ancient ages, given the limited medical knowledge, treatment is usually applied to the face of a very cleverly executed ." Asklepion physicians made their patient bathed with mud, used their herbal drugs, would provide them to attend music and spor. In the meantime, dreams interpreted,their healing was provided by suggesting, if necessary in such things as the operation was done.Three basic items; diet, hot and cold bath and body movements. In addition, the ceremonies in the theatre,made suggestions with music contributed to the healing of the patients.The people who regained their health in here , visited the temple of Asclepius they would help in line with the financial opportunities. Also, they left a small model of a recovered part of the the bodies. Suggesting and belief that the nested Asklepion medical, surgical and paramedical treatments and gained reputation of being one of the most significant health centers, and this reputation has reached today. The place that deaths not enter and will not opened.

asklepion_05[1].jpg


THEATRE AND PROPYLON


asklepion_14[1].jpg

asklepion_07[1].jpg













THE PATIENTS' ROOMS







































HOLY ROAD



www.dirimtipdergisi.com

The book of the history of Pergamum

MERVE ÇAKIR
101010095 - 2/D



APHASIA
What is aphasia?Aphasia is a disorder that results from damage to portions of the brain that are responsible for language. For most people, these are areas on the left side (hemisphere) of the brain. Aphasia usually occurs suddenly, often as the result of a stroke or head injury, but it may also develop slowly, as in the case of a brain tumor, an infection, or dementia. The disorder impairs the expression and understanding of language as well as reading and writing. Aphasia may co-occur with speech disorders such as dysarthria or apraxia of speech, which also result from brain damage.
Who has aphasia?Anyone can acquire aphasia, including children, but most people who have aphasia are middle-aged or older. Men and women are equally affected. According to the National Aphasia Association, approximately 80,000 individuals acquire aphasia each year from strokes. About one million people in the United States currently have aphasia.
What causes aphasia?Aphasia is caused by damage to one or more of the language areas of the brain. Many times, the cause of the brain injury is a stroke. A stroke occurs when blood is unable to reach a part of the brain. Brain cells die when they do not receive their normal supply of blood, which carries oxygen and important nutrients. Other causes of brain injury are severe blows to the head, brain tumors, brain infections, and other conditions that affect the brain.

What are the types of aphasia?There are two broad categories of aphasia: fluent and non-fluent.
How is aphasia diagnosed?The speech-language pathologist (SLP) works collaboratively with the person's family and other professionals (doctors, nurses, neuropsychologists, occupational therapists, physical therapists, social workers) to address all of the person's needs. For example, a person who has had a stroke often has physical problems, such as weakness on one side of the body, that require treatment from a physical or occupational therapist.
How is aphasia treated?In some cases, a person will completely recover from aphasia without treatment. This type of spontaneous recovery usually occurs following a type of stroke in which blood flow to the brain is temporarily interrupted but quickly restored, called a transient ischemic attack. In these circumstances, language abilities may return in a few hours or a few days.
For most cases, however, language recovery is not as quick or as complete. While many people with aphasia experience partial spontaneous recovery, in which some language abilities return a few days to a month after the brain injury, some amount of aphasia typically remains. In these instances, speech-language therapy is often helpful. Recovery usually continues over a two-year period. Many health professionals believe that the most effective treatment begins early in the recovery process. Some of the factors that influence the amount of improvement include the cause of the brain damage, the area of the brain that was damaged, the extent of the brain injury, and the age and health of the individual. Additional factors include motivation, handedness, and educational level.
Aphasia therapy aims to improve a person's ability to communicate by helping him or her to use remaining language abilities, restore language abilities as much as possible, compensate for language problems, and learn other methods of communicating. Individual therapy focuses on the specific needs of the person, while group therapy offers the opportunity to use new communication skills in a small-group setting. Stroke clubs, regional support groups formed by people who have had a stroke, are available in most major cities. These clubs also offer the opportunity for people with aphasia to try new communication skills. In addition, stroke clubs can help a person and his or her family adjust to the life changes that accompany stroke and aphasia. Family involvement is often a crucial component of aphasia treatment so that family members can learn the best way to communicate with their loved one.
Family members are encouraged to:
  • Simplify language by using short, uncomplicated sentences.
  • Repeat the content words or write down key words to clarify meaning as needed.
  • Maintain a natural conversational manner appropriate for an adult.
  • Minimize distractions, such as a loud radio or TV, whenever possible.
  • Include the person with aphasia in conversations.
  • Ask for and value the opinion of the person with aphasia, especially regarding family matters.
  • Encourage any type of communication, whether it is speech, gesture, pointing, or drawing.
  • Avoid correcting the person's speech.
  • Allow the person plenty of time to talk.
  • Help the person become involved outside the home. Seek out support groups such as stroke clubs.
Aphasia can also be classified as
  1. 1. Receptive
  2. 2. Intermediate
  3. 3. Expressive
Receptive aphasias can be subdivided into
A - pure word deafness (patient can hear but not understand words)
B - alexia (the patient cannot understand written words)
C - visual asymbolia (written words are disorganized and can not be recognized).
Intermediate - also called nominal amnestic aphasia.






http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/aphasia.htm
http://www.medicinenet.com/aphasia/article.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aphasia
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hp-_DH2vOes
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MCq7KDuWftY



Ceylan Dumanlı

101010046

2-B

WHO IS ALLEN IVERSON?



Allen Ezail Iverson (born June 7, 1975) is an American professional basketball player, playing both the point guard and shooting guard positions. Iverson attended Bethel High School and was a dual-sport athlete; he earned The Associated Press High School Player of the Year award in both football and basketball, and won the Division AAA Virginia State Championship in both sports After high school, Iverson attended Georgetown University for two years, where he set the school record for career scoring average (22.9 points per game and won Big East Defensive Player of the Year awards both years.
Following two successful years at Georgetown, Iverson declared eligibility for the 1996 NBA Draft and was selected by the Philadelphia 76ers with the number one pick[[home#cite_note-2|]]] He was named the NBA Rookie of the Year in the 1996–97 season. Iverson is an eleven-time NBA All-Star which includes winning the All-Star MVP award in 2001 and 2005.
Winning the NBA scoring title during the 1998–99, 2000–01, 2001–02 and 2004–05 seasons, Iverson was one of the most prolific scorers in NBA history, despite his small stature (listed at 6 feet, 0 inches). His regular season career scoring average of 26.7 points per game ranks sixth all-time, and his playoff career scoring average of 29.7 points per game is second only to Michael Jordan. Iverson was also the NBA Most Valuable Player of the 2000–01 season and led his team to the 2001 NBA Finals the same season. Iverson represented the United States at the 2004 Summer Olympics, winning the Bronze medal. He also played for the Denver Nuggets, Detroit Pistons and the Memphis Grizzlies, before returning to the 76ers for part of the 2009–10 season.

Early life

Allen Iverson was born to his single 15-year old mother, Ann Iverson, in Hampton, Virginia, and was given his mother's maiden name after his father Allen Broughton left her.
Allen attended Bethel High Schooll where started as quarterback for the school football team, while also playing running back, kick returner and defensive back.and started as point guard for the school basketball team. During his junior year, Allen was able to lead both teams to Virginia state championships, as well as earning The Associated Press High School Player of the Year award in both sports.
On February 14, 1993, Iverson and several of his friends became involved in an altercation with a group of white teenagers at the Circle Lanes bowling alley in Hampton, Virginia. Allegedly, Iverson's crowd was raucous and had to be asked to quiet down several times, and eventually a shouting duel began with another group of youths. Shortly thereafter, a huge fight erupted, pitting the white crowd against the blacks. During the fight, Iverson allegedly struck a woman in the head with a chair. He, along with three of his friends who are also black, were the only people arrested. Iverson, who was 17 at the time, was convicted as an adult of the felony charge of maiming by mob, a rarely used Virginia statute that was designed to combat lynching Iverson and his supporters maintained his innocence, claiming that he left the alley as soon as the trouble began. Iverson said, "For me to be in a bowling alley where everybody in the whole place know who I am and be crackin' people upside the head with chairs and think nothin' gonna happen? That's crazy! And what kind of a man would I be to hit a girl in the head with a damn chair? I rather have 'em say I hit a man with a chair, not no damn woman."




Iverson drew a 15-year prison sentence, with 10 years suspended. After Iverson spent four months at Newport News City Farm, a correctional facility in Newport News, Virginia, he was granted clemency by Virginia Governor Douglas Wilder, and the Virginia Court of Appeals overturned the conviction in 1995 for insufficient evidence. This incident and its impact on the community is explored in the documentary film No Crossover: The Trial of Allen Iverson. Iverson said of his time in prison, "I had to use the whole jail situation as something positive. Going to jail, someone sees something weak in you, they'll exploit it. I never showed any weakness. I just kept going strong until I came out."
The prison sentence forced him to complete his senior year of high school at Richard Milburn High School, a school for at-risk students, instead of competing in sports at Bethel.However, the three years Iverson spent there were enough to convince famed Georgetown University Coach John Thompson to come out and meet Iverson, and offer him a full scholarship to join the Georgetown Hoyas basketball team.




College basketball

Though Georgetown typically recruited defensive-oriented big men such as Patrick Ewing, Alonzo Mourning, and Iverson's future teammate Dikembe Mutombo with full scholarships, Coach John Thompson felt Iverson deserved a second chance after his time in prison and could not pass up the opportunity to recruit a talent like Iverson's. Iverson kept up the Georgetown tradition of defense by averaging three steals per game and winning the Big East Defensive Player of the Year award in both of his two years at the University.
In his first season at Georgetown, Iverson won the Big East Rookie of the Year award and was named to the All Rookie Tournament First Team.That season, Iverson led the Hoyas to the Sweet 16 round of the NCAA tournament, where they would lose to North Carolina.
In his second (and final) season at Georgetown, Iverson would lead the team to a Big East Championship and all the way to the Elite 8 round of the NCAA tournament, where they would lose to the University of Massachusetts.He ended his college career as the Hoyas' all-time leader in career scoring average, at 22.9 points per game Iverson would be named as a First Team All American.
Following the conclusion of his sophomore year, Iverson declared for the NBA Draft. He would be the first player to leave Georgetown early for the NBA under Coach Thompson.



After two seasons at Georgetown, Iverson was selected first overall by the Philadelphia 76ers in the 1996 NBA Draft. Listed at just six feet tall, Iverson became the shortest first overall pick ever, in a league normally dominated by big men.
Coming to a Philadelphia team that had just finished the previous season at 18-64, Iverson was only able to help the Sixers to a 22–60 record. He was however, named the 1996 Rookie of the Year and was also a member of the NBA All-Rookie First Team, after averaging 23.5 points per game, 7.5 assists per game and 2.1 steals per game. Iverson continued to help the 76ers move forward the following season, as they improved nine games to finish 31-51.
The lockout-shortened1998-1999 season would mark great improvement for the 76ers. Iverson averaged 26.8 points (which led the league, earning his first scoring title) and was named to his first All NBA first team. The Sixers finished the season at 28-22, earning Iverson his first trip to the playoffs. He started all ten playoff games and averaged 28.5 points per game despite being hampered by a number of nagging injuries. Iverson led the Sixers to an upset over the number two seeded Orlando Magic in four games, before losing to the Indiana Pacers in the second round in six games.
Prior to the next season, Iverson signed a six-year, $70 million contract extension. That year, the Sixers would continue to improve under Iverson's leadership, as they finished 49-33, once again qualifying for the playoffs (this time earning the fifth seed, one spot higher than the previous year's sixth seed).In the playoffs, Iverson averaged 26.2 points, 4.8 assists, 4 rebounds and 1.3 steals per game. Philadelphia would advance past the Charlotte Hornets in the opening round, but was eliminated by Indiana in the second round in six games for the second straight year.
That season, Iverson was selected to the Eastern Conference All-Star team for the first time of what would be 11 straight selections. He was the only player other than Shaquille O'Neal to receive a MVP vote that year. In the 2000 off-season, the 76ers actively tried to trade Iverson after his numerous disagreements with then-coach Larry Brown, and had agreed to terms with the Detroit Pistons before Matt Geiger, who was included in the deal, refused to forfeit his $5 million trade kicker. When it became apparent that Iverson would remain a member of the Sixers, Iverson and Brown put their differences aside to make another attempt at a NBA Championship.



MVP season and trip to the finals (2000–01)


Allen Iverson attempting a free throw against the Lakers
During the 2000–01 season, Iverson led his team to wins in the first ten games of the season, and was named starter at the 2001 NBA All-Star Game, where he won the game MVP. The Sixers also posted a 56–26 record, the best in the Eastern Conference that season. He also averaged a then-career high 31.1 points, winning his second NBA scoring title in the process. Iverson won the NBA steals title at 2.5 a game. Iverson was named NBA Most Valuable Player; at 6 feet and 165 pounds, he became the shortest and lightest player to win the MVP award. He had 93 first-place votes out of a possible 124. He was also named to the All NBA First team for his accomplishments. In the playoffs, Iverson and the Sixers defeated the Indiana Pacers in the first round, before meeting Vince Carter-led Toronto Raptors in the Eastern Semifinals. The series went the full seven games. In the next round, the Sixers defeated the Milwaukee Bucks, also in seven games, to advance to the 2001 NBA Finals against the defending champion Los Angeles Lakers featuring the duo of Kobe Bryant and Shaquille O'Neal.
Iverson led the Sixers to their first finals since their 1983 championship. In game one of the 2001 NBA Finals, Iverson scored a playoff high 48 points and beat the heavily favored Lakers 107–101. In the game he notably stepped over Tyronn Lue after hitting a crucial shot. Iverson would go on to score 23, 35, 35, 37 in games 2–5, all losing efforts though the Sixers were not swept like many predicted. Iverson enjoyed his most successful season as an individual and as a member of the Sixers during the 2000–01 NBA season
Iverson began using a basketball sleeve during this season during his recovery from bursitis in his right elbow. Other players, including Carmelo Anthony and Kobe Bryant have adopted the sleeves as well, as did fans who wore the sleeve as a fashion statement Iverson continued wearing his sleeve long after his elbow had healed.Some believe that the sleeve improved Iverson's shooting ability, while Steven Kotler of Psychology Today suggested that the sleeve may act as a placebo to prevent future injuries



= Early Playoff Exits and Larry Brown's departure (2001–2003)=
Fresh off their trip to the Finals, Iverson and the Sixers entered the 2001-2002 season with high expectations, but were plagued by injuries, and only able to muster a 43-39 record to just sneak into the playoffs. Despite playing in only 60 games that season and being hampered by injuries, Iverson averaged 31.4 points per game to earn his second consecutive scoring title. The 76ers lost to the Boston Celtics in the first round of the playoffs 3-2 in the five game series. After the defeat, Brown criticized Iverson for missing team practices. Iverson responded by saying, "We're sitting here, I'm supposed to be the franchise player, and we're in here talking about practice,"and went on a rant that included the word "practice" over twenty times.
The 2002–2003 season started off poorly for the Sixers, who had just traded defensive-standout Dikembe Mutombo to New Jersey, and saw a decrease in both offensive and defensive production from Aaron McKie and Eric Snow, all three of whom were key components to their Finals appearance two years prior. Iverson would once again put up stellar scoring numbers (27.6 points per game) however, and the Sixers regrouped following the All-Star break to make the playoffs with a 48-34 record. They were able to defeat Baron Davis and the New Orleans Hornets in the opening round of the playoffs, before being eliminated by the Detroit Pistons in the second round after a 6-game series.

Allen Iverson and then-teammate John Salmons.
Head Coach Larry Brown left the 76ers in 2003, following the playoff loss. After his departure from the 76ers, both he and Iverson indicated that the two were on good terms and genuinely fond of one another.[Need quotation to verify Iverson later reunited with Brown when Iverson became a member and co-captain of the 2004 United States Olympic men's basketball team
= Detroit Pistons and Memphis Grizzlies (2008–2009)=

Iverson, as a member of the Pistons, dribbling against DeShawn Stevenson
On November 3, 2008, Iverson was dealt from the Denver Nuggets to the Detroit Pistons for guard Chauncey Billups forward Antonio McDyess and center Cheikh Samb
Iverson, who had worn a number 3 jersey his entire NBA career, switched to number 1 for the Pistons. The number 3 was being worn by Rodney Stuckey and although Stuckey stated that he would be willing to give up the number, the NBA ruled that a change in numbers could not take place until after the season.
Iverson scored at least 24 in four of his first five games with Detroit (They won 3 of the 5),and would score 20 or more and 6 or more assists on a consistent basis, but as the season wore on he would lose playing time to Rodney Stuckey
On April 3, 2009, it was announced by Pistons President of Basketball Operations Joe Dumars that Iverson would not play the remainder of the 2008–09 season. Dumars cited Iverson's ongoing back injury as the reason for his deactivation, although two days prior Iverson stated publicly that he'd rather retire than be moved to the bench as Piston's coach Michael Curry had decided.
On September 10, 2009, Iverson signed a one-year contract with the Memphis GrizzliesIverson stated that "God chose Memphis as the place that I will continue my career," and that "I feel that they are committed to developing a winner."
However, Iverson again expressed his displeasure at being a bench player, and left the team on November 7, 2009 for "personal reasons."On November 16, the Grizzlies announced the team terminated his contract by "mutual agreement".Iverson played three games for the Grizzlies




=== Regular season===
Year
Team
GP
GS
MPG
FG%
3P%
FT%
RPG
APG
SPG
BPG
PPG
1996–97
Philadelphia
76
74
40.1
.416
.341
.702
4.1
7.5
2.1
.3
23.5
1997–98
Philadelphia
80
80
39.4
.461
.298
.729
3.7
6.2
2.2
.3
22.0
1998–99
Philadelphia
48
48
41.5
.412
.291
.751
4.9
4.6
2.3
.2
26.8
1999–00
Philadelphia
70
70
40.8
.421
.341
.713
3.8
4.7
2.1
.1
28.4
2000–01
Philadelphia
71
71
42.0
.420
.320
.814
3.8
4.6
2.5
.3
31.1
2001–02
Philadelphia
60
59
43.7
.398
.291
.812
4.5
5.5
2.8
.2
31.4
2002–03
Philadelphia
82
82
42.5
.414
.277
.774
4.2
5.5
2.7
.2
27.6
2003–04
Philadelphia
48
47
42.5
.387
.286
.745
3.7
6.8
2.4
.1
26.4
2004–05
Philadelphia
75
75
42.3
.424
.308
.835
4.0
7.9
2.4
.1
30.7
2005–06
Philadelphia
72
72
43.1
.447
.323
.814
3.2
7.4
1.9
.1
33.0
2006–07
Philadelphia
15
15
42.7
.413
.226
.885
2.7
7.3
2.2
.1
31.2
2006–07
Denver
50
49
42.4
.454
.347
.759
3.0
7.2
1.8
.2
24.8
2007–08
Denver
82
82
41.8
.458
.345
.809
3.0
7.1
2.0
.2
26.4
2008–09
Denver
3
3
41.0
.450
.250
.720
2.7
6.7
1.0
.3
18.7
2008–09
Detroit
54
50
36.5
.416
.286
.786
3.1
4.9
1.6
.1
17.4
2009–10
Memphis
3
0
22.3
.577
1.000
.500
1.3
3.7
0.3
0.0
12.3
2009–10
Philadelphia
25
24
31.9
.417
.333
.824
3.0
4.1
.7
.1
13.9
Career

914
901
41.1
.425
.313
.780
3.7
6.2
2.2
.2
26.7
All-Star

9
9
26.6
.414
.667
.769
2.6
6.2
2.3
.1
14.4

Playoffs

Year
Team
GP
GS
MPG
FG%
3P%
FT%
RPG
APG
SPG
BPG
PPG
1998–99
Philadelphia
8
8
44.8
.411
.283
.712
4.1
4.9
2.5
.2
28.5
1999–00
Philadelphia
10
10
44.4
.384
.308
.739
4.0
4.5
1.2
.1
26.2
2000–01
Philadelphia
22
22
46.2
.389
.338
.774
4.7
6.1
2.4
.3
32.9
2001–02
Philadelphia
5
5
41.8
.381
.333
.810
3.6
4.2
2.6
.0
30.0
2002–03
Philadelphia
12
12
46.4
.416
.345
.737
4.3
7.4
2.4
.1
31.7
2004–05
Philadelphia
5
5
47.6
.468
.414
.897
2.2
10.0
2.0
.4
31.2
2006–07
Denver
5
5
44.6
.368
.294
.806
.6
5.8
1.4
.0
22.8
2007–08
Denver
4
4
39.5
.434
.214
.697
3.0
4.5
1.0
.2
24.5
Career

71
71
45.1
.401
.327
.764
3.8
6.0
2.1
.2
29.7







MVP season and trip to the finals (2000–01)

Allen Iverson attempting a free throw against the Lakers
During the 2000–01 season, Iverson led his team to wins in the first ten games of the season, and was named starter at the 2001 NBA All-Star Game, where he won the game MVP. The Sixers also posted a 56–26 record, the best in the Eastern Conference that season. He also averaged a then-career high 31.1 points, winning his second NBA scoring title in the process. Iverson won the NBA steals title at 2.5 a game. Iverson was named NBA Most Valuable Player; at 6 feet and 165 pounds, he became the shortest and lightest player to win the MVP award. He had 93 first-place votes out of a possible 124. He was also named to the All NBA First team for his accomplishments. In the playoffs, Iverson and the Sixers defeated the Indiana Pacers in the first round, before meeting Vince Carter-led Toronto Raptors in the Eastern Semifinals. The series went the full seven games. In the next round, the Sixers defeated the Milwaukee Bucks, also in seven games, to advance to the 2001 NBA Finals against the defending champion Los Angeles Lakers, featuring the duo of Kobe Bryant and Shaquille O'Neal
Iverson led the Sixers to their first finals since their 1983 championship. In game one of the 2001 NBA Finals, Iverson scored a playoff high 48 points and beat the heavily favored Lakers 107–101. In the game he notably stepped over Tyronn Lue after hitting a crucial shot.Iverson would go on to score 23, 35, 35, 37 in games 2–5, all losing efforts though the Sixers were not swept like many predicted.



REFERENCES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allen_Iverson

http://www.dailypress.com/sports/allen-iverson/dp-top100-iversonsep24,0,4945489.story

http://www.basketball-reference.com/teams/PHI/1997.html





GÖZDE BOZDOĞAN 101010053 2-B