BADMINTON
In the early days…

BADMINTON was invented long ago; a form of sport played in ancient Greece and Egypt. Badminton came from a child's game called battledore and shuttlecock, in which two players hit a feathered shuttlecock back and forth with tiny rackets. The game was called "POONA" in India during the 18th Century, and British Army Officers stationed there took the Indian version back to England in the 1860's. The army men introduced the game to friends, but the new sport was definitely launched there at a party given in 1873 by the Duke of Beaufort at his country place, "Badminton" in Gloucestershire. During that time, the game had no name, but it was referred to as "The Game of Badminton," and, thereupon, Badminton became its official name.
Until 1887 the sport was played in England under the rules that prevailed in India. They were, from the English viewpoint, somewhat contradictory and confusing. Since a small army of badminton players had been recruited, a group formed itself into the Bath Badminton Club, standardized the rules, made the game applicable to English ideas and the basic regulations, drawn up in 1887, still guide the sport. In 1895, the Badminton Association (of England) was formed to take over the authority of the Bath Badminton Club, and the new group made rules, which now govern the game throughout the world.

Badminton in the world

Badminton quickly spread from England to the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, and made big strides in Europe. Although men first played it, women became enthusiastic about it, and interest now is about equally divided.
The first All-England championship for men was held in 1899 and in 1900 the pioneer tournament for women was arranged. These, however, were regarded as "unofficial" and 1904 marked the beginning of the official All-England matches. The growth of badminton's popularity in the British Isles is evidenced by the fact that in 1920 there were 300 badminton clubs in England, about 500 in 1930, and over 9,000 in the British Isles soon after the World War II

History and development



Game of Battledore and Shuttlecock in 1804


Battledore and Shuttlecock. 1854, from the John Leech Archive[1]
The beginnings of Badminton can be traced to mid-18th century British India, where it was created by British military officers stationed there.[2] Early photographs show Englishmen adding a net to the traditional English game of battledore and shuttlecock. Being particularly popular in the British garrison town Poona (now Pune), the game also came to be known as Poona.[2][3] Initially, balls of wool referred as ball badminton were preferred by the upper classes in windy or wet conditions, but ultimately the shuttlecock stuck. This game was taken by retired officers back to England where it developed and rules were set out.
Although it appears clear that Badminton House, Gloucestershire, owned by the Duke of Beaufort, has given its name to the sports, it is unclear when and why the name was adopted. As early as 1860, Isaac Spratt, a London toy dealer, published a booklet, Badminton Battledore – a new game, but unfortunately no copy has survived.[4] An 1863 article in The Cornhill Magazine describes badminton as "battledore and shuttlecock played with sides, across a string suspended some five feet from the ground".[5] This early use has cast doubt on the origin through expatriates in India, though it is known that it was popular there in the 1870s and that the first rules were drawn up in Poonah in 1873.[4][5]
As early as 1875, veterans returning from India started a club in Folkestone. Until 1887, the sport was played in England under the rules that prevailed in British India. The Bath Badminton Club standardized the rules and made the game applicable to English ideas. J.H.E. Hart drew up revised basic regulations in 1887 and, with Bagnel Wild, again in 1890.[4] In 1893, the Badminton Association of England published the first set of rules according to these regulations, similar to today's rules, and officially launched badminton in a house called "Dunbar" at 6 Waverley Grove, Portsmouth, England on September 13 of that year.[6] They also started the All England Open Badminton Championships, the first badminton competition in the world, in 1899.
The International Badminton Federation (IBF) (now known as Badminton World Federation) was established in 1934 with Canada, Denmark, England, France, the Netherlands, Ireland, New Zealand, Scotland, and Wales as its founding members. India joined as an affiliate in 1936. The BWF now governs international badminton and develops the sport globally.
While initiated in England, competitive men's badminton in Europe has traditionally been dominated by Denmark. Asian nations, however, have been the most dominant ones at the world level. Indonesia, South Korea, China, and Malaysia along with Denmark are among the nations that have consistently produced world-class players in the past few decades, with China being the greatest force in both men's and women's competition in recent years

Equipment



Badminton racquets

Racquets

Badminton racquets are lightweight, with top quality racquets weighing between 70 and 95 grams (2.4 to 3.3 ounces) not including grip or strings.[8][9] They are composed of many different materials ranging from carbon fibre composite (graphite reinforced plastic) to solid steel, which may be augmented by a variety of materials. Carbon fibre has an excellent strength to weight ratio, is stiff, and gives excellent kinetic energy transfer. Before the adoption of carbon fibre composite, racquets were made of light metals such as aluminium. Earlier still, racquets were made of wood. Cheap racquets are still often made of metals such as steel, but wooden racquets are no longer manufactured for the ordinary market, because of their excessive mass and cost. Nowadays, nanomaterials such as fullerene and carbon nanotubes are added to rackets giving them greater durability.
There is a wide variety of racquet designs, although the laws limit the racquet size and shape. Different racquets have playing characteristics that appeal to different players. The traditional oval head shape is still available, but an isometric head shape is increasingly common in new racquets.

Shuttlecock

A shuttlecock (often abbreviated to shuttle; also called a birdie) is a high-drag projectile, with an open conical shape: the cone is formed from sixteen overlapping feathers embedded into a rounded cork base. The cork is covered with thin leather or synthetic material.
Synthetic shuttles are often used by recreational players to reduce their costs as feathered shuttles break easily. These nylon shuttles may be constructed with either natural cork or synthetic foam base, and a plastic skirt.






REFERENCES
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Badminton
http://www.usm.edu/badminton/History.htm

Şeyda ŞAHİN

101010007

2-A

external image B-Letter-B2.jpgALKAN TURKS AND IMMIGRATION

It is a fact that Turks could not live without having an independent state in the world and it is already proved with so many examples. If the issue is defending their homeland, the whole world have learnt that each of Turkish person becomes fearless and hero. As we all know there is a proverb that says ‘’If three Turks get together at anywhere and anytime there is no doubt they establish a state.’’ Believe me this is real but today I am going to talk about the Turks who have been living as a stranger on their own homeland and I am going to talk about the Turks who have been suffering from being Turkish minority. So many minorities have same troubles all around the world but this is a forced emigration which was implemented by using violence and which was done by Bulgarians to Turks who lived in Bulgaria.

external image scaled.php?server=267&filename=i05007027uoum4.jpg&res=medium

The first immigration of Turks to Balkans began in the eleventh century. These Turks tribes were Huns, Kumans and Peçenek Turks. However, these tribes have lost their Turkish features in time. On the other hand, as we all know, some of these Turkish tribes helped to some Turkish states in the wars. For example, although Peçenek Turks were in the Byzantine Empire army in the battle of Manzikert in 1071, during the war they changed the side and joined into the Seljuk Empire army and they played an important role in winning the war. But the biggest and largest scale immigration to Balkans was occurred during the Ottoman Empire time. Actually because of housing policy of the Ottoman Empire so many Turcoman tribes emigrated from Anatolia to Rumelia. The fact is that, some of them were forced to immigrate by Ottoman Empire and some of them immigrated with their request to go.

external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRlMalkP-G0wzSiOlBMRTQ0n6ruEnLv7yq4mIdp6czqPU9zNHPTTkHixeNV6w

The Ottoman Empire ruled over 400 years on the Balkans and the population of Turks was also increased. Each of nation were living in peace and all of them were respectful to each of them religion or beliefs. Whole citizen's rights and properties had been taken under guarantee without any distinction by the Ottoman Empire. However, the Ottoman Empire began losing power and soon began losing ground too. After the Balkan Wars, the Ottoman Empire had lost the wars and a treaty was signed that meant losing Rumelia. Even at that time immigration to Anatolia had begun but most of Turks had stayed at their homeland but not as a native, this time as a stranger after 400 years. There were always troubles between Turkey and the Balkan states because of Turkish minority in the Balkans but what is more important is the Turks who remained in Bulgaria.

external image kircaali2.jpg

Bulgarian Turks live mostly in compact communities in the south of the country in the Arda river basin and in the north-east in the Dobrudzha region. They also live in scattered communities in the central and eastern Stara Planina (the Balkan Mountains) and in the Rhodope mountains. Even all the troubles they have, nevertheless they were living on their own homeland but at 1945 there was a revolution in Bulgaria and management style communism was accepted. After that event, Bulgarian Turks thought that they would have more comfortable and free life but on the contrary, that was the footsteps of the bad days for Turks who live in Bulgaria.At various times since the end of World War II Bulgaria and Turkey have reached agreement over the emigration of Turks from Bulgaria to Turkey. The largest number of such emigrants left Bulgaria in the period 1949-1951. In August 1950 the Bulgarian Government announced that a total of 250,000 Turks had applied to leave. The Turkish Government, on the other hand, said it was unable to receive such a huge mass of people within such a short time and in November 1950 closed its border with Bulgaria because of “illegal crossing of borders”.


external image 36479_120847277959105_120843084626191_120237_7800449_n.jpg external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSZdX9YuUCE6u2VrHrhvLAsgBgCOH2F1QjrkMcCr87R4tH3nQ4sfWL0A-g

Following the expiry of this agreement all emigration except for a few individual cases was stopped and during the assimilation campaign of 1984-85, the authorities denied the existence of ethnic Turks in Bulgaria claiming that the Turks were in fact descendants of Slav Bulgarians forcibly islamicized under the period of Ottoman rule, and as such there was no need for any further emigration agreements. However, as the whole world knows it wasn’t true, it was a scenario. After this period, the Bulgarian Government which was under the leadership of Todor Jivkov decided to apply this scenario on the life and they began making pressure on the Pomaks and Gypsies first. When they see no one cares about the situation they decided to put the real scenario which aims at Turks into operation.

external image jivkovvvv.jpg

Firstly, they have tried to change the name of Turks like same they have done to Pomaks and Gypsies. Moreover, they have done army raids on Turkish villages and they closed all mosques. Besides, speaking Turkish was also forbidden and they even took money from Turks who spoke Turkish. It was a kind of genocide which was inhuman behaviour.At last Turks could not stand this happen anymore and protests began to be made by Turks. In response to that they began using weapons and violence unfortunately lots of people died just because of being Turkish. The government of Bulgaria claimed that there was not any of Turks in Bulgaria, there were just Muslims which islamicized by Ottoman Empire and therefore they needed to be turned into their own assets. However, as everyone knows it is wrong; Bulgarians come from a Turkish tribe. Eventually, Turkey could not stay without doing anything, and the President of Turkey Turgut Özal, declared that ‘’All my cognates, I tell you, all of you can come your homeland our doors are always open for all of you ‘’.

external image turgut+%25C3%25B6zal.png

After it was heard, everyone left their home, their animals and their soil without thinking any minute and they began immigrating. Because going to Turkey was a big dream for all Turks who live in abroad. Just in 2 or 3 weeks 250.000 and 300.000 Turks immigrated to Turkey from Bulgaria but two or three weeks later Bulgaria decided to close the borders and lots of Turks remained in Bulgaria. There are still lots of Turks living in Bulgaria including my most of family and despite democracy in Bulgaria now there are some doubts in all Turks minds such as ‘’what will we do if it happens again?’’Therefore living as a minority in a country is very hard and no one can understand that without experiencing.Now the best thing we can do is that we should not forget them because they are our people and they are us. As a one of immigrant Turks who come from Bulgaria, I have already known and experienced what does mean being at your own homeland as a stranger.



external image 1989-zorunlu-goc-gazete-haberleri.jpgexternal image gp_4584680002.jpg

There is a movie named Stolen Eyes which demonstrates the cruelty of Bulgarian Government in 1989, and you can watch its some of important parts in the video.

==

Uploaded with ImageShack.us




Bibliography: Yavuz Başarır (Tarih ve Edebiyat Yazılarım)(Balkanlarda Türk Yerleşimleri)

http://yavuzbasarir.blogspot.com/2009/02/balkanlarda-turk-yerlesimleri.html,

Wikipedia

DZHYUNEYT IBRAHIM OSMAN

101009902

2/B







BEETHOVEN


In the last two centuries the people have pretty psychological problems which harm their whole lives. It is really difficult to deal with that situation. But it is said that there is a natural solution for this terrible depression. That natural solution is ‘classical music’. Now i will try to give some specific information about Beethoven who is called as the father of classical music.


image.jpg





Ludwig van Beethoven was born in Germany in 1770 , but his origin is Dutch. He is the son of parents who have eight disabled children. If we think that the musical success and fame of Beethoven , we could think he had a happy and lucky life . But when we look at his life and opportunities which he had, it is absolutely seen that he was so strong and genius in music in spite of all bad situations. His father was an alcoholic musician who is the first music teacher of Beethoven. While Beethoven was learning the piano from his father , father of Beethoven was so cruel and hard to his son. Furthermore in his childhood years he had to work for his poor family. He started to play piano when he was a child to help his family’s income.


beethoven01.jpg

In his music career ,it is known that he was so choosy and hard-working. Music was his all life. He was known as a pianist previously but then , he made a name as a composer and all over the world would know him even after centuries. I want to add an information at this point which made me surprised. Before composing , he put his head in a bucket which was full of cold water.
In his thirty ages , there were some symptoms about his deafness. Unfortunately , while music and sounds are so important for his life , he lost his hearing ability. But deafness did not affect his music career. He went on living with music. As all we see , it is necessary to dealing with all bad situation. Weakness is not for us .




















REFERENCES :
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vQVeaIHWWck
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ludwig_van_Beethoven
http://www.musicwithease.com/beethoven-pictures.html

SEMA KARAKOC

101010077
2/C








external image 179-English-Gothic-letters-15th-Century-letter-B-q85-319x500.jpgermuda (or "Devil's") Triangle

The Bermuda Triangle (a.k.a. the Devil's Triangle) is a triangular area in the Atlantic Ocean bounded roughly at its points by Miami, Bermuda, and Puerto Rico. Legend has it that many people, ships and planes have mysteriously vanished in this area. How many have mysteriously disappeared depends on who is doing the locating and the counting. The size of the triangle varies from 500,000 square miles to three times that size, depending on the imagination of the author. (Some include the Azores, the Gulf of Mexico, and the West Indies in the "triangle.") Some trace the mystery back texternal image bermudatriangle.jpgo the time of Columbus. Even so, estimates range from about 200 to no more than 1,000 incidents in the past 500 years. Howard Rosenberg claims that in 1973 the U.S. Coast Guard answered more than 8,000 distress calls in the area and that more than 50 ships and 20 planes have gone down in the Bermuda Triangle within the last century.

Since the days of early civilization many thousands of ships have sunk and/or disappeared in waters around the world due to navigational and other human errors, storms, piracy, fires, and structural/mechanical failures. Aircraft are subject to the same problems, and many of them have crashed at sea around the globe. Often, there were no living witnesses to the sinking or crash, and hence the exact cause of the loss and the location of the lost ship or aircraft are unknown. A large number of pleasure boats travel the waters between Florida and the Bahamas. All too often, crossings are attempted with too small a boat, insufficient knowledge of the area's hazards, and a lack of good seamanship.

To see how common accidents are at sea, you can examine some of the recent accident reports of the National Transportation Safety Board for ships and aircraft. One of the aircraft accident reports concerns an in-flight engine failure and subsequent ditching of a Cessna aircraft near Great Abaco Island in the Bahamas on 13 July 2003. This is the type of accident that would likely have been attributed to mysterious causes in the Bermuda Triangle if there had been no survivors or other eyewitnesses of the crash.

Supernatural explanations

Triangle writers have used a number of supernatural concepts to explain the events. One explanation pins the blame on leftover technology from the mythical lost continent of Atlantis. Sometimes connected to the Atlantis story is the submerged rock formation known as the Bimini Road off the island of Bimini in the Bahamas, which is in the Triangle by some definitions. Followers of the purported psychic Edgar Caycetake his prediction that evidence of Atlantis would be found in 1968 as referring to the discovery of the Bimini Road. Believers describe the formation as a road, wall, or other structure, though geologists consider it to be of natural origin.

Other writers attribute the events to UFOs.This idea was used by Steven Spielberg for his science fiction film Close Encounters of the Third Kind, which features the lost Flight 19 aircrews as alien abductees.

Charles Berlitz, author of various books on anomalous phenomena, lists several theories attributing the losses in the Triangle to anomalous or unexplained forces.

Natural explanations

Compass variations

external image Gulfstream1.jpg

Gulf Stream

The Gulf Stream is a deep ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and then flows through theStraits of Florida into the North Atlantic. In essence, it is a river within an ocean, and, like a river, it can and does carry floating objects. It has a surface velocity of up to about 2.5 metres per second (5.6 mi/h).A small plane making a water landing or a boat having engine trouble can be carried away from its reported position by the current.

Human error

One of the most cited explanations in official inquiries as to the loss of any aircraft or vessel is human error. Human stubbornness may have caused businessman Harvey Conover to lose his sailing yacht, the Revonoc, as he sailed into the teeth of a storm south of Florida on January 1, 1958.

Violent weather

Hurricanes are powerful storms, which form in tropical waters and have historically cost thousands of lives lost and caused billions of dollars in damage. The sinking of Francisco de Bobadilla's Spanish fleet in 1502 was the first recorded instance of a destructive hurricane. These storms have in the past caused a number of incidents related to the Triangle.

A powerful downdraft of cold air was suspected to be a cause in the sinking of the Pride of Baltimore on May 14, 1986. The crew of the sunken vessel noted the wind suddenly shifted and increased velocity from 20 mph to 60 - 90 mph. A National Hurricane Center satellite specialist, James Lushine, stated "during very unstable weather conditions the downburst of cold air from aloft can hit the surface like a bomb, exploding outward like a giant squall line of wind and water."A similar event occurred to the Concordia in 2010 off the coast of Brazil.

Methane hydrates

external image 800px-Gas_hydrates_1996.svg.png



An explanation for some of the disappearances has focused on the presence of large fields ofmethane hydrates (a form of natural gas) on the continental shelves.Laboratory experiments carried out in Australia have proven that bubbles can, indeed, sink a scale model ship by decreasing the density of the water;any wreckage consequently rising to the surface would be rapidly dispersed by the Gulf Stream. It has been hypothesized that periodic methane eruptions(sometimes called "mud volcanoes") may produce regions of frothy water that are no longer capable of providing adequate buoyancy for ships. If this were the case, such an area forming around a ship could cause it to sink very rapidly and without warning.

Publications by the USGS describe large stores of undersea hydrates worldwide, including theBlake Ridge area, off the southeastern United States coast. However, according to another of their papers, no large releases of gas hydrates are believed to have occurred in the Bermuda Triangle for the past 15,000 years.

Rogue waves

In various oceans around the world, rogue waves have caused ships to sink and oil platforms to topple.These waves, until 1995, were considered to be a mystery and/or a myth.





















References;
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bermuda_Triangle
http://www.skepdic.com/bermuda.html
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TSpqVpfFTAI
http://www.history.navy.mil/faqs/faq8-1.htm

Ayşe Nur ONAT

2/B 101010045



Bermuda (or "Devil's") Triangle
The Bermuda Triangle (a.k.a. the Devil's Triangle) is a triangular area in
Photo credit: NASA
Photo credit: NASA
the Atlantic Ocean bounded roughly at its points by Miami, Bermuda, and Puerto Rico. Legend has it that many people, ships and planes have mysteriously vanished in this area. How many have mysteriously disappeared depends on who is doing the locating and the counting. The size of the triangle varies from 500,000 square miles to three times that size, depending on the imagination of the author. (Some include the Azores, the Gulf of Mexico, and the West Indies in the "triangle.") Some trace the mystery back to the time of Columbus. Even so, estimates range from about 200 to no more than 1,000 incidents in the past 500 years. Howard Rosenberg claims that in 1973 the U.S. Coast Guard answered more than 8,000 distress calls in the area and that more than 50 ships and 20 planes have gone down in the Bermuda Triangle within the last century.

Since the days of early civilization many thousands of ships have sunk and/or disappeared in waters around the world due to navigational and other human errors, storms, piracy, fires, and structural/mechanical failures. Aircraft are subject to the same problems, and many of them have crashed at sea around the globe. Often, there were no living witnesses to the sinking or crash, and hence the exact cause of the loss and the location of the lost ship or aircraft are unknown. A large number of pleasure boats travel the waters between Florida and the Bahamas. All too often, crossings are attempted with too small a boat, insufficient knowledge of the area's hazards, and a lack of good seamanship. To see how common accidents are at sea, you can examine some of the recent accident reports of the National Transportation Safety Board for ships and aircraft. One of the aircraft accident reports concerns an in-flight engine failure and subsequent ditching of a Cessna aircraft near Great Abaco Island in the Bahamas on 13 July 2003. This is the type of accident that would likely have been attributed to mysterious causes in the Bermuda Triangle if there had been no survivors or other eyewitnesses of the crash.In various oceans around the world, rogue waves have caused ships to sink and oil platforms to topple.These waves, until 1995, were considered to be a mystery and/or a myth.

Beat Generation


external image xedebiyat-ta-beat-kusagi-768x1024.jpg.pagespeed.ic.QCCV-x4SRa.jpg
The Beat Generation, also known as the beat movement, were a group of American writers who emerged in the 1950s. Among its most influential members were Gary Snyder, the radical poet Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs and Jack Kerouac. The major Beat writings include Jack Kerouac's On the Road, Allen Ginsberg's Howl, and William Burroughs' Naked Lunch.

What started off as a literary phenomenon soon progressed to a life-changing attitude for thousands of people around the world. It embraced originality and individuality in the way people thought and acted. The members of the Beat Generation developed a reputation as new
bohemian hedonists, who celebrated non-conformity and spontaneous creativity.
The beat generation threw out the old rules of literature, music, sex and religion. Central
elements of "Beat" culture included experimentation with drugs, alternative forms of sexuality, an interest in Eastern religion, a rejection of materialism, and the idealizing of exuberant, unexpurgated means of expression and being.

The core group consisted of Jack Kerouac, Allen Ginsberg, Neal Cassady and William S. Burroughs, who met in the neighborhood surrounding Columbia University in uptown Manhattan in the mid-40's. They picked up Gregory Corso in Greenwich Village and found Herbert Huncke hanging around Times Square. They then migrated to San Francisco where they expanded their group consciousness by meeting Gary Snyder, Lawrence Ferlinghetti, Michael McClure, Philip Whalen and Lew Welch.

Bob Dylan, The Beatles were heavily influenced by the Beat Generation. Members like Allen Ginsberg were influential in the anti-war movement. Others who were influenced include: Jefferson Airplane, Joan Baez, Country Joe and the Fish, Crosby Stills Nash and Young. The Beat Generation were followed by the hippies, anti-war movement, which led to the environmental movement, deep ecology and Earth First!


beat-generation.jpg

Origin of name

The term "Beat" was reportedly coined by Jack Kerouac in the late 1940's, but became more common at about the time that writers like himself, Allen Ginsberg and Lawrence Ferlinghetti were beginning to get noticed. It was quickly becoming a slang term in America after World War II, meaning "exhausted" or "beat down" and provided this generation with a definitive label for their personal and social positions and perspectives.

Drug use

The original members of beat generation used a number of different drugs, including alcohol, marijuana, morphine and LSD for experimental purposes.
Claims that some of these drugs can enhance creativity, insight or productivity were quite common.

Major Writers of the Beat Generation
    • Ginsberg, Allen (1926-1997)
    • Kerouac, Jack (1922-1969)
    • Burroughs, William S. (1914-1997)
    • Corso, Gregory (1930-2001)
    • Ferlinghetti, Lawrence (1919-)
    • Cassady, Neal (1926-1968)
    • Solomon, Carl (1928-1993)
    • Holmes, John Clellon (1926-1988)
    • Johnson, Joyce (1935-)
    • Kesey, Ken (1935-2001)
    • Brautigan, Richard (1935-1984)
    • Snyder, Gary (1930-)


external image beat.pnghttps://marmaraelt2.wikispaces.com/B


REFERENCES

http://www.online-literature.com
http://en.wikipedia.org

Harun GÜL
101010036
2-B





external image B-Autonorte.png

LEACH



external image Hollow%20Bleach%20Cichigo.jpeg

Bleach (ブリーチ Burīchi) is a manga and anime series written and illustrated by Tite Kubo. Bleach follows the adventures of Ichigo Kurosaki after he obtains the powers of a Soul Reaper (死神 Shinigami?, literally, "Death God") —a death personification similar to the Grim Reaper—from another Soul Reaper, Rukia Kuchiki. His newfound powers force him to take on the duties of defending humans from evil spirits and guiding departed souls to the afterlife.

Bleach has been serialized in the Japanese manga anthology Weekly Shōnen Jump since August 2001, and has been collected into 54 tankōbon volumes as of March 2012. Since its publication, Bleach has spawned a media franchise that includes an animated television series that was produced by Studio Pierrot in Japan from 2004 to 2012, two original video animations, four animated feature films, seven rock musicals, and numerous video games, as well as many types of Bleach-related merchandise.

Volumes of the manga have sold more than 72 million copies in Japan, and is one of the most sold mangas in the United States. The anime adaptation has been similarly received; it was rated as the fourth most popular anime television series in Japan in 2006 and held a position amongst the top ten anime in the United States from 2006 to 2008. The series received the Shogakukan Manga Award for the shōnen demographic in 2005, and is among the best-selling manga issues in both Japan and the United States.


external image The-best-top-hd-desktop-bleach-wallpaper-bleach-wallpapers-31.jpeg

PLOT OF BLEACH

Ichigo Kurosaki is a 15-16 year old teenager with an unwanted talent for seeing ghosts. This talent allows him to spot the Shinigami Rukia Kuchiki, whom he inadvertently interferes with during her duties. When Rukia is injured by a Hollow that attacks Ichigo's home, Ichigo is forced to temporarily take her Shinigami powers to defeat the Hollow. The next day, Rukia shows up at Ichigo's school as a normal human. She tells him that she has lost all of her powers, rather than merely the fraction she intended to give him, and cannot carry out her duties. Ichigo must take her place as Karakura Town's Shinigami while she recovers, guiding souls to the afterlife and defending people from attacking Hollows.

Ichigo's spiritual power as a Shinigami is surprisingly large, attracting hungry Hollows and even affecting nearby humans by awakening any spiritual powers they possess. His powers also attract an enemy of another type: Uryū Ishida, one of the few remaining Quincy, a race of spiritually-empowered humans who were butchered by the Shinigami long ago. In order to prove the Quincy are better than Shinigami, he challenges Ichigo to a Hollow hunting contest. This goes horribly awry, as the bait Uryū uses to start the contest is far more effective than intended, summoning legions of Hollows. During this contest, Yasutora "Chad" Sado and Orihime Inoue, two of Ichigo's friends, have their own spiritual abilities awakened when they are assaulted by Hollows. Uryū and Ichigo eventually ally to drive off the Hollows.

As the remainder of the school year passes, Ichigo, Rukia, Chad, Orihime, and Uryū become close friends. Rukia begins to grow comfortable with life in the living world but realizes that she needs to leave. Having already spent too much time in the living world without permission, she has become a wanted criminal. Her superiors in Soul Society send two elite Shinigami, Renji Abarai and Byakuya Kuchiki, to arrest her. Ichigo tries to stop the arrest, but his efforts are in vain. Not only is he defeated, but Byakuya strips him of the Shinigami powers Rukia had given him. Rukia is taken to Soul Society, where she is put on death row.

Kisuke Urahara, a mysterious shopkeeper and ex-Soul Society resident, approaches Ichigo with a way to recover his powers and save Rukia: Ichigo must die, and then find the Shinigami powers hidden within his own soul before he becomes a Hollow. Ichigo narrowly succeeds in this endeavor, but emerges from the training stronger than he ever was before. Ichigo, Chad, Orihime, and Uryū then set off for Soul Society, led by one of Urahara's friends, a talking cat named Yoruichi. The story continues with many twists and turns with action, adventure and comedy.


external image The-best-top-hd-desktop-bleach-wallpaper-bleach-wallpapers-1.jpg

PRİMARY CHARACTERS

Ichigo Kurosaki

Ichigo Kurosaki (黒崎一護 Kurosaki Ichigo) is the primary protagonist of Bleach and main hero. An orange-haired high school student, Ichigo becomes a "substitute Shinigami (Soul Reaper)" after unintentionally absorbing most of Rukia Kuchiki's powers.

external image The-best-top-hd-desktop-bleach-wallpaper-bleach-wallpapers-15.jpg

Rukia Kuchiki

Rukia Kuchiki (朽木ルキア Kuchiki Rukia) is a Soul Reaper who is assigned hollow extermination duties in Ichigo's hometown (Karakura Town) and is the main heroine (though her role is downplayed later on). Though her physical appearance is that of a teenage girl, in reality she is ten times older than Ichigo.

external image The-best-top-hd-desktop-bleach-wallpaper-bleach-wallpapers-5.jpg

Orihime Inoue

Orihime Inoue (井上織姫 Inoue Orihime) is a long-time classmate of Ichigo Kurosaki who gains a crush on him later on in the series, linked to him by mutual friend Tatsuki Arisawa. She is effectively an orphan, as when she was 3, her older brother Sora left their abusive parents' home with Orihime and raised her on his own. Later on, when Orihime was in middle school, he died in an accident

external image bleach-39-wide800.jpg

Yasutora Sado"Chad"

Yasutora Sado (茶渡泰虎 Sado Yasutora), better known as Chad (チャド Chado), is one of Ichigo's friends at school. He is a biracial Japanese/Mexican student who towers over his classmates at 7 feet 2 inches.[17] Despite his imposing appearance he is quite meek, and refuses to fight unless it is for the sake of another.

external image sado-yasutora.jpg

Uryū Ishida

Uryū Ishida (石田雨竜 Ishida Uryū) is a Quincy, descendant of a line of priest-like hollow-hunting archers who were historical enemies of the Soul Reapers. He bears a deep grudge against all Soul Reapers, including Ichigo, and is an early antagonist in the series. He comes to view Ichigo differently over time, and eventually becomes a valuable ally and a friendly rival.

external image ishida-uryuu-do-bleach-13.jpg

Renji Abarai

Renji Abarai (阿散井恋次 Abarai Renji?) is Rukia's childhood friend and the current Lieutenant of the 6th Division, serving under his captain, Byakuya Kuchiki. His visual distinction are a series of black tribal tattoos that cover most of his face and body, given to him by his zanpakuto, Zabimaru, as he became stronger. Hot-headed and stubborn, he is driven by his desire to protect his friends and to surpass Byakuya Kuchiki. Initially an enemy, he becomes a good friend of Ichigo's and one of his rivals.

external image bleach___renji_abarai.jpg

If you like watching anime, you should watch BLEACH.









REFERENCES
http://www.bleachexile.com/information/bleach-encyclopedia/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Bleach_characters#Primary_characters
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0434665/
http://bleach.wikia.com/wiki/Episodes

HATİCE ER

2-D 101010097