cats
cats


THE CAT

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Cats are similar in anatomy to the other felids, with strong, flexible bodies, quick reflexes, sharp retractable claws, and teeth adapted to killing small prey. Cats use their acute hearing and ability to see in near darkness to locate prey. Not only can cats hear sounds too faint for human ears, they can also hear sounds higher in frequency than humans can perceive. This is because the usual prey of cats (particularly rodents such as mice) make high frequency noises, so the hearing of the cat has evolved to pinpoint these faint high-pitched sounds. Cats also have a much better sense of smell than humans.
Despite being solitary hunters, cats are a social species, and cat communication includes the use of a variety of vocalization (meowing, purring, trilling, hissing, growling and grunting) as well as pheromones and types of cat-specific body language.
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Cats have a rapid breeding rate. Under controlled breeding, they can be bred and shown asas registered pedigree pets, a hobby . Failure to control the breeding of pet cats by spaying and neutering and the abandonment of former household pets has resulted in large numbers of cats worldwide, with a population of up to 60 million of these animals in the United States alone.
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In Turkey, there are some beliefs that cats are thankless and dogs are loyal to their owners. This is not true. For example, dogs and cats can eat their owners. When a dog is hungry, it can eat the owner, but, a cat does not. Cats follow its insticts. They do not leave dirty things. For intance they bury their excreta; but, dogs do not. Cats eat their owners if they are died and begin to decay. When cats whelp, they eat their kittens if they are ill.
Cats eat grass if they have stomachache or headache. If they have sore throat, their ears grow warmer. When you caress their stomach or tail, they are irritated. But when you caress their head, they like you. I have three Ankara cats. They are Pamuk, Tazmanya and Hurşit.

-GO TO PİCTURES OF CATS-

Articles


ÖZGE SEVİMLİ 2-C

CRIMINAL MINDS


I want to give you some information about the American television program which is called ‘Criminal Minds’. It is a qualified program which is not known by many people in Turkey.



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If you want to listen its exciting theme song, You can find it here.








  • Story-line



‘Criminal Minds’ is a television program which has been shown on CBS since 2005. It was created by Jeff Davis. It has 8 seasons already. It focuses on criminals rather than crimes. There is a unit called Behavioral Analysis Unit in this program. This unit examines suspect’s behaviours for the FBI. The people who work in this unit call themselves ‘profilers’.Profiling requires coming up with basic characteristics of the unsub and the victims by using proof from the case and matching that information to historic psychological analyses to resolve the case.The profilers are all special FBI agents and skillful in their fields. They are called by local police to help them to figure out crimes that they can’t solve for a long time. They go there by plane and they work at the crime scenes or police offices. Their work is demanding and it entails going to one place to another always. So, they can’t have a stable family life.



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  • Characters



  1. Aaron Hotchner : He is the unit chief of the team. He is the most experienced agent and his age is around 45. He has a son.
  2. David Rossi : He is a Senior Supervisory Special agent. He once took early retirement to write his own books and give lectures about behavioral anlysis. But, He turned back to the team.
  3. Emily Prentiss : She is a special agent. She is highly educated. She knows many languages. She is the daughter of an ambassador.
  4. Derek Morgan : He is an agent. His father was killed when he was a child. He joined the Chicago Police Department's bomb squad, then moved to the Behavioral Analysis Unit.


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5. Penelope Garcia : She is the team's tachnical analyst. She rarely goes out of the city. She is a fat girl and she is so pretty.

6. Jennifer Jareau : She is also a profiler. She is responsible for communicating with the victims' families. She has good skills in terms of communication.

7. Dr. Spencer Reid : He is the youngest agent of the team. He is really a genius. He has an IQ of 187.


Some charachters didn't show up in all seasons. In order to learn details, Please just look at the table.


Derek
Morgan
Seasons
1,2,3,4,5,6,7, 8




Emily
Prentiss
Seasons
1,2,4,5,6,7




Aaron
Hotchner
Seasons
1,2,3,4,5,6,7, 8




Penelope
Garcia
Seasons
1,3,4,5,6,7




Spencer
Reid
Seasons
2,3,4,5,6,7




Jennifer
Jareau
Seasons
1,2,3,4,5,7


If you are interested in police procedural format, You should watch this television program, I'm sure that you won't be regretful !! Just look at this episode of the program , You can just click the link ;)







References




Simay Avseven
2-A 101010026










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HAMELEON


I want to give you some information about the chameleons which are very interesting. Even if they are not pretty animals, they have some striking features.

.

Chameleons (family Chamaeleonidae) are small to mid-size reptiles, and one of the best known lizard families. They are distinguished by feet, their separately mobile and steroscopic eyes, their very long, highly modified, and rapid tongues, horns on their distinctively shaped heads, and the ability of some to change color. Colors include pink, blue, red, orange, turquoise, yellow, and green. Uniquely adapted for climbing and visual hunting, the approximately 160 species of chameleon range from Africa, Madagascar, Spain, and Portugal, across south Asia, to Sri Lanka, have been to introduced Hawaii, Calfornia, and are found in warm habitats that vary from rain forest to desert conditions. Chameleons can run up to 35km/h (21mph). Chameleons are often kept as household pets.

Chameleon
Chameleon


They are famous for their ability to change their colour but also because of their elongated tongue and their eyes which can be moved independently of each other. The name "Chameleon" means "earth lion" and is derived from the Greek words chamai (on the ground, on the earth).

Half of the world's chameleon population lives on the island of Madagascar. They are famous for their ability to change color. This serves as a form of communication, a response to temperature, light, and mood, as well as a defense against predators. Their eyes can rotate and swivel independently, enabling them to see almost a complete 360-degrees or observe two things simultaneously. Their tongues can be as long as their bodies. Chameleons can balance on a branch by gripping it with their claws and wrapping their tail around the branch to hold on. Chameleons can even sleep upside down!

Scientific Name

Lifespan

Brookesiini and Chamaeleonini spp.

5-9 yrs. (varies by species)

Diet

Omnivore. Insects, snails, spiders, lizards, birds, flowers, berries, and fruit.

Predators and Threats

Humans through habitat destruction and captivity.

Habitat

Forests; Madagascar, Africa, Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Southern Spain and India, small islands near Madagascar and Africa such as the Seychelles and Comoros.

Ability of Changing Color

Some Chameleon species are able to change their body colour, which made them one of the most famous lizard families. Contrary to popular belief, this change of colour is not an adaptation to the surroundings but rather an expression of the physical and physiological condition of the lizard.

For example, when angered, they are likely to become darker in color.

The skin colour is changed under influence of mood, light and temperature. The skin colour also plays an important part in communication and rivalry fights



References

  • switchzoo.com/profiles/chameleon.htm


  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chameleon

Büşra ÇOBAN 101010039 2/B









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CHERNOBYL DISASTER


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In the early hours of 26 April 1986, one of four nuclear reactors at the Chernobyl power station exploded.
Moscow was slow to admit what had happened, even after increased radiation was detected in other countries.
The lack of information led to exaggerated claims of the number killed by the blast in the immediate area.

THE ACCIDENT

25-26 April 1986
Engineers on the evening shift at Chernobyl's number four reactor began an experiment to see whether the cooling pump system could still function using power generated from the reactor under low power should the auxiliary electricity supply fail.
At 2300 control rods, which regulate the fission process in a nuclear reactor by absorbing neutrons and slowing the chain reaction, were lowered to reduce output to about 20% of normal output required for the test. However, too many rods were lowered and output dropped too quickly, resulting in an almost complete shutdown.
Safety systems disabled
Concerned by possible instability, engineers began to raise the rods to increase output. At 0030 the decision was taken to carry on. By 0100 power was still only at about 7%, so more rods were raised. The automatic shutdown system was disabled to allow the reactor to continue working under low power conditions. The engineers continued to raise rods. By 0123, power had reached 12% and the test began. But seconds later, power levels suddenly surged to dangerous levels.



Overheating
The reactor began to overheat and its water coolant started to turn to steam. At this point it is thought that all but six control rods had been removed from the reactor core - the minimum safe operating number was considered to be 30. The emergency shutdown button was pressed. Control rods started to enter the core, but their reinsertion from the top displaced coolant and concentrated reactivity in the lower core.
Explosions
With power at roughly 100 times normal, fuel pellets in the core began to explode, rupturing the fuel channels. At about 0124, two explosions occurred, causing the reactor's dome-shaped roof to be blown off and the contents to erupt outwards. As air was sucked in to the shattered reactor, it ignited flammable carbon monoxide gas causing a reactor fire which burned for nine days. Because the reactor was not housed in a reinforced concrete shell, as is standard practice in most countries, the building sustained severe damage and large amounts of radioactive debris escaped into the atmosphere. Firefighters crawled onto the roof of the reactor building to fight the blaze while helicopters dropped sand and lead in an effort to quell the radiation.
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ENVIRONMENT


The disaster released at least 100 times more radiation than the atom bombs dropped on Nagasaki and Hiroshima.
Much of the fallout was deposited close to Chernobyl, in parts of Belarus, Ukraine and Russia. More than 350,000 people resettled away from these areas, but about 5.5 million remain.
Contamination with caesium and strontium is of particular concern, as it will be present in the soil for many years.
After the accident traces of radioactive deposits were found in nearly every country in the northern hemisphere.
But wind direction and uneven rainfall left some areas more contaminated than their immediate neighbours.
Scandinavia was badly affected and there are still areas of the UK where farms face post-Chernobyl controls.
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HEALTH

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The number of people who could eventually die as a result of the Chernobyl accident is highly controversial.
An extra 9,000 cancer deaths are expected by the UN-led Chernobyl Forum. But it says most people's problems are "economic and psychological, not health or environmental".
Campaign group Greenpeace is among those to predict more serious health effects. It expects up to 93,000 extra cancer deaths, with other illnesses taking the toll as high as 200,000.
The most obvious health impact is a sharp increase in thyroid cancer. About 4,000 cases of the disease have been seen, mainly in people who were children or adolescents at the time.
Survival rates are high and only 15 people are known to have died. But Greenpeace says there could eventually be 60,000 cases of the disease, among 270,000 cases of all cancers.
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For further information click these links:


REFERENCES


B. Asiye Dalli 101010016 2/A



Cocoa Powder


Cocoa powder is made when chocolate liquor is pressed to remove three quarters of its cocoa butter. The remaining cocoa solids are processed to make fine unsweetened cocoa powder. There are two types of unsweetened cocoa powder: natural and Dutch-processed.


Dutch-Processed or Alkalized Unsweetened Cocoa Powder is treated with an alkali to neutralize its acids. Because it is neutral and does not react with baking soda, it must be used in recipes calling for baking powder, unless there are other acidic ingredients in sufficient quantities used. It has a reddish-brown color, mild flavor, and is easy to dissolve in liquids. Its delicate flavor makes it ideal in baked goods like European cakes and pastries where its subtle flavor complements other ingredients. Droste, Lindt, Valrhona, Poulain and Pernigotti are some popular brands.

Natural Unsweetened Cocoa Powder tastes very bitter and gives a deep chocolate flavor to baked goods. Its intense flavor makes it well suited for use in brownies, cookies and some chocolate cakes. When natural cocoa (an acid) is used in recipes calling for baking soda (an alkali), it creates a leavening action that causes the batter to rise when placed in the oven. Popular brands are Hershey's, Ghirardelli, and Scharffen Berger.
The role of cocoa powder in cakes:
When used alone in cakes, cocoa powder imparts a full rich chocolate flavor and dark color. Cocoa powder can also be used in recipes with other chocolates (unsweetened or dark) and this combination produces a cake with a more intense chocolate flavor than if the cocoa wasn't present. Most recipes call for sifting the cocoa powder with the flour but to bring out its full flavor it can be combined with a small amount of boiling water. (If you want to try this in a recipe, substitute some of the liquid in the recipe for boiling water.) Often times, you may notice that more butter and leavening agent are used in recipes containing cocoa powder. This is to offset cocoa powder's drying and strengthening affect in cakes. There are two types of unsweetened cocoa powder: natural and Dutch-processed and it is best to use the type specified in the recipe as the leavening agent used is dependent on the type of cocoa powder. Some prefer using Dutch-processed cocoa as a slight bitterness may be tasted in cakes using natural cocoa and baking soda.












Ozan KOÇ 2-C 101010086


REFERENCES



CLASH OF THE TITANS



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Directed by
Louis Leterrier
Produced by
Basil Iwanyk
Kevin De La Noy
Richard D. Zanuck
Screenplay by
Travis Beacham
Phil Hay
Matt Manfredi
Based on
Clash of the Titans by
Beverley Cross
Starring
Sam Worthington
Gemma Arterton
Mads Mikkelsen
Alexa Davalos
Ralph Fiennes
Liam Neeson
Music by
Ramin Djawadi
Cinematography
Peter Menzies Jr.
Editing by
Vincent Tabaillon
Martin Walsh
Studio
Legendary Pictures
The Zanuck Company
Thunder Road Pictures
Distributed by
Warner Bros. Pictures
Release date(s)
April 2, 2010
Running time
106 minutes
Country
United Kingdom
United States
Language
English
Budget
$125 million
Box office
$493,214,993[1]

Clash of the Titans is a 2010 fantasy action remake of the 1981 film of the same name (the rights to which had been acquired by Warner Bros. in 1996). The story is very loosely based on the Greek myth of Perseus. Directed by Louis Leterrier and starring Sam Worthington, the film was originally set for standard release on March 26, 2010. However, it was later announced that the film would be converted to 3D and was released on April 2, 2010. The film grossed $493 million worldwide, though it received mainly negative reviews from critics.

PLOT

In ancient times, the gods led by Zeus (Liam Neeson), Poseidon (Danny Huston) and Hades (Ralph Fiennes) betrayed their parents, theTitans, and banished them to the Underworld with the help of the Kraken, a sea monster born of Hades. The gods divided the Universe among themselves; Zeus took the skies, Poseidon took the seas, and Hades, tricked by Zeus, was left with the Underworld. The gods created the mortals, whose faith in them assured their immortality. However, as time passed, mortals began to question them.
A fisherman by name of Spyros (Pete Postlethwaite) finds a casket afloat in the sea, bearing a baby still living and clasped in the arms of his mother’s corpse. Spyros and his wife Marmara (Elizabeth McGovern) raise the baby as their own and name him "Perseus". Years later, Perseus (Sam Worthington) is fishing with his family when they witness soldiers from the city of Argos destroying a statue of Zeus. The gods, infuriated at this desecration, unleash the Furies - flying beasts who pursue mortal sinners. The soldiers are attacked and slaughtered by the Furies. The Furies merge and take the form of Hades, who destroys the ship Perseus and his family are on. His family perishes, but Perseus survives and is found by other survivors, soldiers from Argos led by Draco (Mads Mikkelsen).
Perseus is brought before King Cepheus (Vincent Regan) and Queen Cassiopeia (Polly Walker) who are celebrating the campaign against the gods. Queen Cassiopeia brashly compares her daughter Princess Andromeda (Alexa Davalos) to the Gods and boasts she is more beautiful than Aphrodite. The revelry is cut short by the arrival of Hades, who has been given leave by Zeus to punish the mortals for their defiance. Hades ages Cassiopeia to old age and proclaims that in the upcoming solar eclipse, he will unleash the Kraken against Argos unless Andromeda is offered as a sacrifice. Before leaving, he reveals that Perseus is a demigod, the son of Zeus.
Perseus is imprisoned by Draco and in captivity meets Io (Gemma Arterton) who tells him of his origin. Many years before, King Acrisius (Jason Flemyng) also tried declaring war against the gods. To punish him, Zeus impersonated Acrisius and impregnated his wife, Queen Dänae (Tine Stapelfeldt). Acrisius, driven mad with rage, ordered the execution of Dänae and the newborn baby and cast them into the sea in a coffin. As punishment for his continued defiance, Zeus also struck Acrisius with lightning, transforming him into a monster. Io also reveals that she was cursed with immortality after she refused Poseidon's advances and has watched over Perseus his entire life, beginning with watching from ashore as his adoptive parents rescue him from the floating coffin, to the present, always protecting him, as he is prophesized to be the only one able to stand up to the Gods.
As the Cult of Hades led by the insane Prokopion (Luke Treadaway) grows in number and demands Andromeda's sacrifice, a desperate Cepheus asks Perseus to lead the King's Guard to visit the Stygian Witches in order to discover a way to kill the Kraken. Wishing to avenge the death of his family, Perseus accepts. Perseus and the guards head off on their quest joined by Anatolian monster hunters, Ozal (Ashraf Barhom) and Kucuk (Mouloud Achour). Hades seeks out and finds a decrepit Acrisius, now known as Calibos, and promises him he will destroy Zeus in exchange for Calibos killing Perseus. Calibos promises to serve him and Hades gives Calibos powerful superhuman abilities.
Zeus is convinced by Apollo (Luke Evans) to give Perseus a chance and presents him with an enchanted sword forged on Mt. Olympus and a winged horse named Pegasus. Perseus refuses both gifts but a wise Draco puts the sword into safekeeping. Shortly thereafter, they are attacked by Calibos. Calibos kills several men and bites Perseus on the arm, poisoning him with venom. With Calibos holding Perseus by the head, Draco severs Calibos's hand causing Calibos to flee. The band gives chase but is attacked by giant scorpions called Scorpiochs summoned by Calibos’s blood. Although they manage to kill some of them while losing a few men, they are ultimately surrounded by even larger scorpions until they are saved by the Djinn, a band of non-human desert sorcerers led by Sheik Suleiman (Ian Whyte). The Djinn, also wishing for the gods' defeat, lend their aid to Perseus and his band. Suleiman also cures the poison from the bite on Perseus's arm.
The group arrives at the lair of the Stygian Witches and learns from them that the only possibility for killing the Kraken lies with the head of the gorgon Medusa who resides in a temple in the Underworld. Medusa can turn any creature made of flesh into stone that makes eye contact with her gaze, and thus using her head is the only way to stop the Kraken. As they prepare to head into the Underworld, Perseus is approached by Zeus, who offers to make him a god, but when he refuses, Zeus gives him a golden drachma, fare for Charon, the ferryman of the Underworld.
Perseus, Io, Suleiman, Draco and his remaining men Solon (Liam Cunningham), Eusebius (Nicholas Hoult) and Ixas (Hans Matheson) cross into the Underworld and enter Medusa's temple lair while Io remains outside, unable to enter the temple as a woman. Using her bow, Medusa (Natalia Vodianova) shoots Solon causing him to fall into lava fire, wounds Draco, and turns Eusebius and Ixas into stone. Suleiman and Draco both wound Medusa, sacrificing themselves in the process and setting the stage for Perseus to behead her with his eyes closed. As he is leaving the temple with Medusa's head, he witnesses Calibos appear behind Io and fatally stab her. Perseus and Calibos engage in mortal combat with Calibos having the upper hand and disarming Perseus. Finally coming to terms with who he is, Perseus picks up the Olympian sword and pierces Calibos through the chest, turning him back into Acrisius in human form, restoring him to sanity and humility for one last moment.
Before dying, Io urges a reluctant Perseus to leave her and save Andromeda and Argos before she dissolves into a golden ethereal vapor. Perseus mounts Pegasus and hastens back to Argos as the solar eclipse begins and Zeus orders the Kraken's release. The Cult goes to the palace and seizes Andromeda in order to offer her to the Kraken. While the Kraken ravages Argos, Hades reveals to Zeus that while they have been surviving on the people’s adoration, he has been feeding on people's fear and his monster has been channeling even more fear. While the gods have become weaker, Hades has now grown powerful enough to take on Mount Olympus and even destroy it in revenge for his betrayal so many years before. Realizing his mistake too late, Zeus can only rely on Perseus.
In Argos, Hades unleashes the Furies against Perseus and they manage to snag away from him the sack holding Medusa’s head while the Kraken causes massive damage to Argos. In an intense aerial chase with Perseus riding Pegasus, he manages to retrieve the bag and expose Medusa's face to the Kraken, making eye contact just before it is able to eat Andromeda. The Kraken slowly turns into a massive stone statue which cracks and falls apart. The falling debris kills Prokopion and Cepheus while Andromeda falls into the sea. Hades appears to confront Perseus and taunts him; Perseus raises his sword to the heavens and calling upon Zeus, throws his sword at Hades. A lightning bolt engulfs the sword which expels Hades and banishes him to the Underworld once more.
Perseus dives in to the sea and rescues Andromeda, now the rightful Queen of Argos and respected by her people. She asks him to stay by her side as King, but he declines, saying he is not a leader but simply a man. After flying away with Pegasus, Perseus arrives on the island where Zeus's statue was destroyed, near where his family was killed. Zeus meets with him, thanks Perseus for risking so much, and offers once more to make him a god and live with him on Mt. Olympus. Perseus declines, saying he has every thing he needs on earth in his mortal form. Zeus tells Perseus men will still worship him, and bades him to be good to mankind. As Zeus leaves, he says that if Perseus is to live as a human, he should not do it alone, and his parting gift is to revive and present Io. As the story ends, Perseus and Io approach one another to embrace as Pegasus flies overhead.

Alternative endings

The special feature of the Blu-ray has an alternate ending that was cut from the film. After defeating the Kraken and Hades, Andromeda falls into the sea and Perseus dives in to save her. When he reaches her, he embraces her with a passionate kiss, indicating that he fell in love with her, and she with him. After reaching the shore and regaining consciousness, Andromeda asks Perseus if he will stay and he says there is someone he needs to talk to, before kissing her again, indicating that he will come back. Getting on Pegasus, he flies to Mt. Olympus where he confronts Zeus, stating that he does not wish to be one of them and that any conflict between them has just started. After slamming his sword into the Gods' map and shattering the models of every living person, he leaves and is seen flying on Pegasus over the sea, presumably back to Argos.

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References:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clash_of_the_Titans_(2010_film)

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uPMji6AQeMA

http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0800320/

MURAT HAN DÜBÜŞ
2-D 101010111





external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTnQgLnySQaXD9ZaI1tk1OgHEK5Xc2NeDvWX4ivBDzIqoRJeCE3kAappacocia

which is unique in the world and is a miraculous nature wonder is the common name of the field covered by the provinces of Aksaray, Nevsehir, Nigde, Kayseri and Kirsehir in theCentral Anatolian region.

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In the upper Myosen period in the Cappadocia region as a result of the vulcanic eruptions occurred in Erciyes, Hasandag and Gulludag, in the region was formed a large tableland from the vulcanic tufas and together with the erosion of the Kizilirmak river and wind over ten thausands of years there appeared the chimney rocks which are a wonder of the nature. In the old Bronze Age the Cappadocia which was the population zone of the Assyrian civilization later has hosted the Hittite, Frig, Pers, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman civilizations. The first Christians escaped from the persecution of the Roman Empire in the 2nd century B.C. came to the Cappadocia over the Antakya and Kayseri and they have settled here. The first Christians finding the underground cities from Cappadocia have been hidden in these underground cities which gates were made in such way in which they couldn't be easily observed and they have escaped from the persecution of the Roman soldiers. Due that they had live in the underground cities for long duration without being able to go out they have developed these underground cities by making provisions rooms, ventilation chimneys, wine production places, churches, abbeys, water wells, toilets and meeting rooms.

The first populations of the region of Cappadocia were Hatties, Luvies and Hittites. In the 3000-2000 years B.C. the Assyrians have established trade colonies in this region. The Cappaddocian tables with cuneiform in Assyrian language founded at Kanes which are lighting the social and politic life of the period and were in the same time the trade and economical agreements are the firs written tablets of Anatolia. According to these documents in that period in Anatolia were founded small local kingdoms non-depending from a central authority. These had in generally in their hands a little area and were living in peace. The region creating the core of the Hittite Empire later has go under the domination of Phrigia and Pers. The Pers civilization has called this region Katpatuka and its center was Mazaka. When Datames the Satrab (Starab: little district administrator at Pers) of Cappadocia has bear arms against the biggest king of Pers, the other Anatolian Satrabs have been supported him but the revolt has been raided. In 33 b.c. the Big Alexander has captured a big part of Cappadocia. In 188 B.C. The Cappadocia which entered under the Roman domination has been captured in 100 B.C. by the Mithridatesd the king of Pontus but in 63 B.C. Pompeius has defeated Mithridates and took again the Cappadocia under the domination of Rome. In the period of Tiberius the Cappadocia gainded the status of Roman district.

Cappadocia was one of the most important places in the spreading periods of the Christian religion. The first christians trying to escape from the Roman soldiers who wanted to avoid the spreading of the Christian religion have settled in the region of Cappadocia which was so suitable for hiding and so they were able to continue their natures and to spread their religions. Saint Basileious from Kaisera and Saint Gregorios from Nyssa had settled in Cappadocia. In 647 A.C. together with occupation of Kayseri by Muaviye Cappadocia has met with the Arabian invasions. Cappadocia which went under the domination of the Seljuks in 1072 has been added to the lands of Ottoman Empire in 1399 by the Ottoman Sultan Yildirim Beyazit. These are places which takes place in the Cappadocia Region.

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Ürgüp

Ürgüp which has been established at the outskirts of the hill named as hill of whishes founded at 20 km in north of Nevsehir province in one of the first settlement areas of Cappadocia region. In the Byzantine period has been called as Osiana, Hagios, Prokopios, in the period of Seljuks as Bashisar and in the period of Ottomans as Burgut Castle. Until the first years of the Republic was called Ürgüp. Ürgüp was the patriarchate center of the Cappadocia region. The Üzümlü Church, Cambazli Church and Sarica Church in Ortahisar which was one of the villages of Ürgüp are the oldest rock churches from the region. Furthermore and Tavsanli Church and Church of Saint Basileious are the spectacular places. Ürgüp which has got the famous cave hotels, wines and hand made carpets is the most important tourism center of the Cappaddocia Region. The old cave houses were restored as a touristy cave hotel without damaging their historic structure. Among the cave hotels some of the cave have been restores as distraction place as discos and bars.

How can you go: You can go to Urgup from Nevsehir province by roadway 20 km. Nevsehir is 670 km. far from Istanbul, 280 km. from Ankara, 750 km. from Izmir.

external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcSP50A5LKf5Tgz-jFIZvA3CAe6j3TgbP6uxKz2uJmVl7k96MTokkw

Göreme

Göreme which have the old names of Korama, Matiana and Maccan is 10 km far away from the center of Nevsehir province. The valley created from volcanic rocks is famous with the chimney rocks resulting from the erosion made by the natural factors to these rocks and with the historical richness. It has been an important religious place together with the intensive emigration of the first Christians escaping from the pressure of the Roman soldiers. The population escaped from the pressures has made many abbeys, churches and houses in the volcanic rocks from the valley where they were able to hidden easily. In our days in Goreme are found Elmali Church, Saint Barbara Church, Carikli Church, Tokali Church and Hidden Church and all of these are Goreme Open Air Museums. In the churches there are scenes from the life of Jesus, descriptions of the saints who written the Bible and pictures of Saint Barbara and Saint Georgius.

How can you go: You can go to Goreme from Nevsehir province by roadway 13 km. Nevsehir is 670 km. far from Istanbul, 280 km. from Ankara, 750 km. from Izmir.

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Avanos

Avanos taking place at 18 km in the north of center of Nevsehir has been settled on the coast of the Kizilirmak River. Its name from antique periods is Venessa. The most important feature of the region is the manufacture of clay jugs, biscuits, and jars. The jar makers continuing since the period of the Hittites are still continuing their traditions. At the archeological diggings made in the Zank Mound near the town Sarilar of Avanos there has been discovered the ruins belonging to the different culturs from the Old Bronze Age and until to Late Roman Period. Sarihan which is 5 km far away from Avanos is one of the most beautiful examples of the classical Seljuk architecture. At Sarihan which in our days is used as a touristy place every night are made Mevlevi ceremonies. You can join pottery workshop with master potters Chez Hakan or another master Chez Baris in Avanos. We recommend both of them.

In particular we recommend to eat "Comlek Kebabi" in Avanos.

How can you go: You can go to Avanos from Nevsehir province by roadway 18 km. Nevsehir is 670 km. far from Istanbul, 280 km. from Ankara, 750 km. from Izmir.

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Ihlara valley

The volcanic eruption of Hasandagi led to tectonic movements that left the surface of the region covered with a layer of volcanic rock. The same volcanic activity led to pressure and heat being put upon the limestone causing it to crack and create naturally spouting springs of hot water, these can be seen at the Ziga Thermal Springsbetween Ihlara and Yaprakhisar. The structural characteristics of the region due to volcanic eruption produced tufa outcrops which were moulded by wind, erosion and other natural phenomena and created the strange and colorful Fairy Chimneys that are also encountered at Selime and Yaprakhisar. The tectonic movoments produced tufa rock that in some places is soft and in others is coloured grey, green and brown. Huge areas of crumbling rock completely covered the area in its debris. The Ihlara valley alogside the melendiz River is a result of this disintegration that created a canyon with a deep base. The fast flowing river is in places between 100 and 200 m deep and it divides the valley into two; it continues towards Aksaraywith the name Ulunmak until reaches Tuz Golu (Salt Lake).

Aksaray Province of Cappadocia region was an important religious centre in Christianity's very earliest days. Founders of orders like Basilof kayseri and Greegory of Nazianos lived here in the 4th century. A different set of monastic rules than the system used in Egypt ad Syria was determined here. Although the monks in Egypt and Syria cut themselves off from relationships with the wordly things the monks under Basil and Gregory did not. The birthplace for this concept was Belisirma.

How can you go: You can go to Ihlara valley from Aksaray province 40 km. Aksaray is 674 km. far from Istanbul, 225 km. from Ankara, 693 km. from Izmir.

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Ortahisar

Ortahisar is situated on Nevsehir Urgup roadway far with 6 km from Ürgüp. Its most pronounced structure is the Castle of Ortahisar situated at a 86 m height cave in the period of Eti. The castle has been used strategically and for accommodation. At the outskirts of the castle there are available the samples of the civil architecture characteristic toCappadocia. Furthermore in the stores of the rocks cave in almost the entire valley there are stored the agricultural products grown in the zone. It is an attractive town with its natural beauty and historical features. The valley contending the Kavak, Ibrahim Pasa and Ortahisar regions is reaching to the Valley of Damsa Rivers. The places near to the Damsa River of this valley are named Üzengi River. It is a place with natural features as mineral water. In the middle of Ortahisar there is a castle as a huge chimney rock. The foreign peoples also call this castle as Chateau. The inside parts are caved. It has got the rooms and saloons. Moreover around the town there are many churches. In Ortahisar the housed are raise step by step to the castle. The natural beauties, the old historic structures and the interesting citrus gardens near to the Göreme rock stones provide that the tourist to be attracted here. In the valley of Ortahisar there are very interesting abbeys and churches. These are Sarica Church, Cambazli Church, Tavsanli Church, Balkan Rive Churches, Hallac River Abbey. The Ethnography Museum where the life of Cappadocia is described has been opened at Ortahisar.

How can you go: You can go to Ortahisar from Nevsehir province by roadway 15 km. Nevsehir is 670 km. far from Istanbul, 280 km. from Ankara, 750 km. from Izmir.

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Underground Cities

One of the characteristics of Cappadocia is having plenty of underground cities. It's known that there are more than a hundred of underground settlements in the region and many of them are not open for visits. The underground cities, which are guessed to be used since the Bronze Age, used to be a settlement mostly in Byzantine period, doubtless. In this period, increasing invasions forced local residents to build underground cities for protection and religious purposes.

Certainly the most interesting features of the Cappadocia area are the underground cities founded within. Until now even that have been determined about 40 underground cities just six of these have been opened for visit. Nobody can know how many underground cities there are in the Cappadocia area. Some say that there is one for every village and settlement in the region but certainly not all of the sites can be described as cities. Well known underground cities of Cappadocia area are Tatlarin Underground cityDerinkuyu Underground City, Ozkonak Underground City, Mazi Village Underground City, Kaymakli Underground City and Gaziemir Underground City

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Cappadocia Balloon Tour

Everybody wants fly like a bird everytime. That is a big dream of human. Now you can realize your own dream with cappadocia balloon tour. Don't omit join to balloon tour if you planning to go to cappadocia. You can see the deep canyons, valleys and fairy chimneys from the air.

Cappadocia balloon tour begins every day at sunrise. Balloon tour takes almost an hour but if you want to join deluxe balloon tour it takes 1.30 hour. There are so many balloon tour company in cappadocia area, you can choose one of them. You can take your own flight certificate after tour. Comfortable clothes and shoes are recommended.

Don't forget your own camera, because you can take the best photos of the world during that journey.

Have a nice journey.. I am sure that you will be enjoy in cappadocia and balloon tour.

References:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%9Crg%C3%BCp

http://www.cappadociaturkey.net

http://www.google.com.tr/imghp?hl=tr&tab=wi

Serap ÖZTÜRK

2/B 101010034



external image BOY-3t-86-c_G%C3%BCnboyu_Dekoratif_tahta_C_harfi-1.jpglipperton Island is a coral island in the shape of a ring. It is a small island located in the southwest of Mexico in the nPacific Ocean.

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There are no people living on the island permanently except for Mexicon fishermen and French Navy members. The only land animals considered to exist on Clipperton Island are bright orange crabs (but they are poisonous, so it is not a good idea to eat them), birds, lizards and rats.It is predicted that these animals have arrived from the wrecked ships. Also ducks have been reported in the lagoon.Now I want to write about the tragedy which took place in 1917 on the island.

Everything begins with a mining settlement on the island which the British Pacific Island Company built as a result of its agreement with the Mexicon government. In the same year a lighthouse was put up by the President Porforio Diaz.By 1914, almost 100 people were supplied every two months by a ship from Acapulco. But, this resupply visits stopped after the Mexicon Revolution and these people were left to live on their own.Then the governer did no let the evacuation.This caused the males on the island to die of scurvy.(a disease caused by not eating foods such as fruit and vegetables that contain Vıtamin C.) The last remaining people on the island were the lighthose keeper and 15 women and children.The lighthouse keeper declared himself as ''the king'' and begin raping and murdering before being killed by the governer's widow.The last survivors( 4 women and 7 children) were taken to Yorktown in 1917.After this event, no efficient attempt was made to colonize Clipperton Island.external image SobrevivientesClipperton.jpgAfter this tragic story we need some cheerful things about the island. What can you do on the island if you have a chance to go there one day? I have 3 offers for you:

1)Fishing attracts more and more tourists every year, especially the waters around the island are famous for the rare Clipperton Angelfish.

2)Wildlife watching will be an inevitable part of your travel to the island. Although there arenot many species on the island it will be interesting to encounter 13 different bird species, bright orange crabs and the rats( the only mammals on the island).

3)Snorkeling and diving in the waters can be an amazing experience with the dolphins around you.

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It was abandoned by the end of World War II, after briefly being occupied by the USA.Since then it has only been visited by sport fishermen and by Mexicon tuna and shark fishermen.

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It was originally discovered by Ferdinand Macellan in 521, but was later named after John Clipperton, an English pirate.

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The island is now uninhabited and is in the possession of France.

REFERENCES

http://theazon.com/2011/08/top-10-most-deserted-island-world/
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clipperton_Island#Guano_mining_and_the_tragedy_of_1917
http://wikitravel.org/en/Clipperton_Island

BURCU TURHAN

2-D 101010105



















cliff-burton_963.jpg
thumbnail.jpglifford Lee "Cliff" Burton was an American musician, best known as the bass guitarist for the American heavy metal band Metallica.

Burton was born on February 10, 1962, in Castro Valley, California to Jan and Ray Burton. He had two elder siblings, Scott and Connie. Burton's interest in music began when his father introduced him to classical music and he began taking piano lessons. In his teenage years, Burton had an interest in rock, classical and eventually heavy metal. He began playing the bass at age 13, after the death of his brother. His parents quoted him as saying, "I'm going to be the best bassist for my brother." He practiced up to six hours per day (even after he joined Metallica). Along with classical and jazz, Burton's other early influences varied from southern rock, country and blues. Burton also cited Geezer Butler of Black Sabbath, Misfits, Phil Lynott of Thin Lizzy, and Geddy Lee of Rush as influences on his style of bass playing.

Burton formed his first band called EZ-Street when he is still a student at Castro Valley High School. Other members of EZ Street were Jim Martin(guitarist) and Mike Bordin(drummer). Burton and Martin continued their musical collaboration after becoming students at Chabot College in Hayward, California. Their second band, Agents of Misfortune, entered the Hayward Area Recreation Department's Battle of the Bands contest in 1981. Burton joined his first major band, Trauma, in 1982. Burton recorded the track "Such a Shame" with the band on the second Metal Massacre compilation.

In 1982, Trauma traveled to Los Angeles to perform a concert. Among those in attendance were James Hetfield and Lars Ulrich. They loved Burton's amazing bass style and they decided to recruit him for their own band. They asked him to join to them but the idea of having to move to Los Angeles did not sit well with him, and said he would join only if the band would relocate from Los Angeles to his native San Francisco Bay Area. Metallica accepted to relocate and moved San Francisco..

Burton's first recording with Metallica was the Megaforce demo. A demo tape the band had made prior to Burton's joining, No Life 'til Leather, managed to come into the hands of John Zazula, owner of Megaforce Records. The band relocated to Old Bridge, New Jersey and quickly secured a recording contract with Zazula's label. Its debut album, Kill 'Em All, features Burton's famous solo piece, "(Anesthesia) Pulling Teeth", which showcased his use of effects, such as a wah-wah pedal.

Metallica's first album, Kill 'Em All, was originally titled Metal Up Your Ass, but the music censors didn't like the title and forced the band to change it. After the band learned of the change, Cliff said "Just kill 'em all, man," which gave the band members an idea for the new title. Metallica's debut album was released in 1983.

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The band's second studio album, Ride the Lightning, showcased the band's increasing musical growth. Burton's songwriting abilities were growing, and he received credit on six of the album's eight songs. Burton's playing style and use of effects is showcased on two tracks: the chromatic intro to "For Whom the Bell Tolls", and the "lead bass" on "The Call of Ktulu".
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The increase of musicianship on Ride the Lightning caught the attention of major record labels. Metallica was signed to Elektra Records, and began working on its third album, Master of Puppets, which is considered by most critics to be a landmark album in both thrash and the whole of metal. Burton is featured heavily on a number of tracks, most notably the instrumental "Orion", which again featured Burton's lead bass playing style. The album also contained Burton's favorite Metallica song "Master of Puppets". Master of Puppets was the band's commercial breakthrough, but it would be Burton's final album with Metallica.
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During the European leg of the Damage Inc. tour, at 7 am on September 27, the band's bus skidded off the road and flipped onto the grass in Ljungby Municipality, near Dörarp in rural southern Sweden. Burton died at this accident.

Burton was cremated and his ashes scattered at the Maxwell Ranch. At the ceremony, the song "Orion" was played. The lyrics "...cannot the Kingdom of Salvation take me home" from "To Live Is to Die" are written on Burton's memorial stone.

A memorial stone was unveiled near the scene of the fatal crash on October 3, 2006. It is located by the parking lot to Gyllene Rasten. A big thrash metal band Anthrax dedicated its album Among the Living to him, as did Metal Church with The Dark. On April 4, 2009, Burton was posthumously inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame, with the rest of Metallica. During the ceremony, the induction was accepted by his father, Ray Burton, who shared the stage with the band. A biography, To Live Is to Die: The Life and Death of Metallica's Cliff Burton, written by Joel McIver, was published by Jawbone Press in June 2009. Hammett provided the book's foreword.

One of his solo.. Listen..

Referencess:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cliff_Burton
http://www.eksisozluk.com/show.asp?t=cliff+burton
MUHAMMET OCEL
2-B 101010050



external image 12372070946y382t.jpgARNIVAL OF XANTHI


Xanthi is a city in Thrace, northeastern Greece. Xanhti is known as ` İskeçe" in Turkish. Its population is 52,270. Xanthi is famous for its deserts and dried nuts which can be found int both the stores at the Old Town and the bazaar that is held every Saturday. By 1715, Xanthi became renowned for its tobacco and after that the economic activities related to it. Located in the heart of Xanthi, the Old Town is a pole of attraction in a wider geographic region that attracts cultural,historic an ecological attention.


OLD TOWN XANTHI

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Nowadays, Xanthi became one of the modern city of Greece. The modern city features parks, squares and modern housing. The city also features a vast array of restaurant, tavern and ouzeri that serve local delicacies. Xanthi is also famous throughout Greece for its Carnival. Every year, for fifteen consecutive days during the period of the end of February until the beginning of March a grand Carnival is organized with references to both local customs and traditions and modern day life.During these days is held a grand bazaar and a big game park.
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In fact, it is a three - week Carnival period which begins 60 days before Easter. It is called `Triodin`. The word comes from `τρείς ωδές`(tris odes) that means three hymns that they use to say at churches.According to their customs, the two last Sundays are the most important days.The Meat Eating Sunday `Apokria` and the last Sunday of Carnival, during which celebrations and festivities reach climax,is the Cheese Eating Sunday `Tirofagou`.The end of Carnival is next day`s dawn: the first day of Lent,which is Clean Monday `Ash Monday`.During all this time, parties and festivities are organized everywhere and people have a great time, especially children. Both children and adults are dressed up with funny costumes; they dance,sing and watch Carnival Parades and other activities organized by municipalities of the Greek Carnival.

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Carnival has its roots in ancient Greek. It is connected with the worship of Dionysus, God of wine and celebrations.The word `Carnival` actually comes from the Latin `carnem levare` which means `the discontinuation of eating meat`. In Greek the word that used is `apokria` and it means the same. Carnival consists of folk celebrations with European and domestic bands. Greek carnival continues a tradition that has been established thousand years ago. Greeks, every year following the tradition of the new religion celebrate with the same way at the same period of the year the same ancient festival.People in fancy dresses go out in the streets, accompanied by the music of municipal bands.The parade is the complement of the whole festival which is Thrace`s vivid expression. The parade is made up of groups of people in disguise,floats,and dancers. The theme of each of floats int he procession are different and most all make fun rhyming verse of situations and events depicting the politics and life of Greek society.After all that the people gather in a central square for food, drink and dance. The final event is the burning of the `Carnival King` in a big bonfire as everyone dances around it.


PARADE GATHERING IN THE CENTRAL SQUARE






REFERENCES:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ALk4Rxn_MiE&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GqGx98DHFIY&feature=related
http://www.sunnyfotini.com/blogfiles/Carnival_Xanthi_2008.htm?cq=1&p=1916
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xanthi


SADIKA İMAM OĞLU

2-D 101010922


CELLO

external image Cello_front_side.png

The cello is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. It is a member of the violin family of musical instruments, which also includes the violin, viola, and double bass.
A person who plays a cello is called a cellist. The cello is used as a solo instrument, in chamber music, in a string orchestra and as a member of the string section of an orchestra. It is the second largest bowed string instrument in the modern symphony orchestra, the double bass being the largest.
Cellos were derived from other mid- to large-sized bowed instruments in the 16th century, such as the viola da gamba, and the generally smaller and squarer viola da braccio , and such instruments made by members of the Amati family of luthiers. The invention of wire-wrapped strings in Bologna gave the cello greater versatility. By the 18th century the cello had largely replaced other mid-sized bowed instruments.
Etymology
The name cello is an abbreviation of the Italian violoncello, which means "little violone" referring to the violone ("big viol"), the lowest-pitched instrument of the viol family, the group of string instruments that went out of fashion around the end of the 17th century in most countries except France, where they survived another half-century or so before the louder violin family came into greater favour in that country too. Thus, the name carries both an augmentative "-one" ("big") and a diminutive "-cello" ("little"). By the turn of the 20th century, it had grown customary to abbreviate the name violoncello to 'cello, with the apostrophe indicating the six missing prefix letters.It is now customary to use the name "cello" without the apostrophe and as a full designation. The word derives ultimately from vitula, meaning a stringed instrument.
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History


The history of bowed string musical instruments in Europe dates back to the 9th century with the lira (Greek: λύρα, Latin: lūrā), the bowed instrument of the Byzantine Empire,equivalent to the rabāb of the Islamic Empires. The Persian geographer Ibn Khurradadhbih (d. 911) of the 9th century, in his lexicographical discussion of instruments, cited the Byzantine lira as a typical instrument of the Byzantines along with the urghun (organ), shilyani (probably a type of harp or lyre) and the salandj.The Byzantine lira spread through Europe westward and in the 11th and 12th centuries European writers use the terms fiddle and lira interchangeably when referring to bowed instruments (Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009). In the meantime the Arab rabāb was introduced to the Western Europe possibly through the Iberian Peninsula and both bowed instruments spread widely throughout Europe giving birth to various European bowed instruments.

Over the centuries that followed, Europe continued to have two distinct types of bowed instruments: one, relatively square-shaped, held in the arms, known with the Italian term Lira da braccio (or Viola da braccio, meaning viol for the arm), family of the modern violin; the other, with sloping shoulders and held between the knees, known with the Italian term Lira da gamba (or viola da gamba, meaning viol for the leg), family of the Byzantine lyra and the modern Cello.During the Renaissance,the gambas were important and elegant instruments; they eventually lost ground to the louder (and originally less aristocratic) lira da braccio.However, the a gamba playing position remained popular to larger instruments that could not be played with a braccio position.


external image Violoncello_open_strings.png

REFERENCES

^ http://www.paulperleycellos.com/chatterfurthertonalimprovements.html
Stephen Bonta. "Violoncello", [[/wiki/Grove_Dictionary_of_Music_and_Musicians|Grove Music Online]], ed. L. Macy (accessed January 28, 2006), grovemusic.com (subscription access).
Cyr, Mary. "Basses and basse continue in the Orchestra of the Paris Opéra 1700-1764". Early Music XVIII (Apr., 1982): 155–170.
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjOQac1vOEc
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cello

SELMA ŞENTÜRK 2D 101010924


CIRCASSIANS



Who Are Circassians?


The Circassians (who call themselves "Adyghe") are an indigenous people of the Northwest Caucasus region.
The term "Circassian" is the English equivalent of the Turkic "Cherkess". Although this term has sometimes been used in a broad sense to include the Adyghe, the Abkhaz-Abaza and the Ubykhs - whose respective languages belong to the North-West Caucasian family group - or indiscriminately, to all the peoples of the North Caucasus, it should refer more precisely to the inhabitants of historical Circassia, the Adyghe.
Today, only a minority of Circassians live in their divided ancestral homeland, mainly in three republics of the Russian Federation (Kabardino Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia and Adygheya), the majority having been forced to migrate to the Ottoman Empire following the 19th century Russian conquest of the Caucasus.
History
The Circassians first emerged as a coherent entity somewhere around the tenth century A.D., although references to them exist much earlier. They were never politically united, a fact which reduced their influence in the area and their ability to withstand periodic invasions from groups like the Mongols, Avars, Pechenegs, Huns, and Khazars.
This lack of unity eventually cost the Circassians their independence, as they were slowly conquered by Russia in a series of wars and campaigns in the late 18th and early to mid-19th centuries. During this period, the Circassians plight achieved a certain celebrity status in the West, but pledges of assistance were never fulfilled. After the Crimean War, Russia turned her attention to the Caucasus in earnest, starting with the peoples of Chechnya and Dagestan. In 1859, the Russians had finished defeating Imam Shamil in the eastern Caucasus, and turned their attention westward, finally subjugating the Circassians in 1864.
Like other ethnic minorities under Russian rule, the Circassians were subjected to policies of mass resettlement. adigecerkes_adige.jpg
Culture
The Circassians were warlike people. Grown men were expected to carry arms, and boys trained to be warriors. Familial ties were not strongly encouraged; parents fostered their children to other adults rather than raising them themselves. The Circassian society was once matriarchal. Women fought in war alongside their husbands. Although the society is no longer matriarchal, women still give have a high place of respect and dignity.
Circassian society prior to the Russian invasion was highly stratified. While a few tribes in the mountainous regions of Circassia were fairly egalitarian, most were broken into strict castes. The highest was the caste of the "princes", followed by a caste of lesser nobility, and then commoners, serfs, and slaves. In the decades before Russian rule, two tribes overthrew their traditional rulers and set up democratic processes, but this social experiment was cut short by the end of Circassian independence.
The primary religion among modern Circassians is Sunni Islam.
The Diaspora
Circassians have lived outside the Caucasus region since the Middle Ages. They formed a tradition of joining foreign armies, including those of Persia, Rome, Byzantium, and the Golden Horde. They were particularly well represented in the Mamluks of Turkey and Egypt. In fact, the Burji dynasty which ruled Egypt from 1382 to 1517 was founded by Circassian Mamluks.
Much of Circassian culture was disrupted after their conquest by Russia in 1864. This lead to a Circassian Diaspora, mostly to various parts of the Ottoman Empire. Today, significant communities of Circassians live in Turkey, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Israel, Libya, and the United States. The small community in Kosovo expatriated to Adygea in 1998.






adigaz.jpg



Circassians, an excerpt from the ''Prometheus among the Circassians''
By John Colarusso
Professor in the Anthropology Department of McMaster University. John Colarusso has published articles and books on linguistic theory, Caucasian languages, and comparative mythology. He is currently preparing two volumes of Nart Saga translations and commentaries, supported by the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

In the southwest of the Soviet Union, bordering upon Turkey and Iran, lies one of the most ethnographically complex areas in all Eurasia, the Caucasus. The Caucasus mountains, which dominate this area nearly the size of Spain, are home to a bewildering variety of ethnic groups, some of which seem to be survivors from earlier eras. These groups speak roughly fifty languages, the majority of which are unrelated to any other languages on earth, and show complex and exotic features that set them apart from the other languages of Eurasia. In this one area there are three distinct language families: the Southern or Kartvelian, the Northeastern or Daghestanian, and the Northwestern. The Northwestern languages are perhaps the most complex of any in the region and are spoken by the Abkhazians, the Abazas, the Ubykhs, the Kabardians and the Adygheans. The last two peoples are often grouped together as Circassians.
The Circassians originated in the northwestern quarter of the Caucasus, bounded on the north by the Kuban river. They practiced a mixed economy. Those in the higher vallies and montane forests practiced small scale agriculture and hunting, and often preserved old Christian or pagan customs. Those in the foothills and plains practiced horse-breeding, farming and trade, and usualy espoused Sunni Islam, though in their towns Christian and Jewish Circassians could be found. The Circassians were famed throughout the Middle East for the beauty of their women and the courage of their men. Physically most Circassians are European in appearance with perhaps a slight oriental cast to their features. Many Circassians are blond and blue-eyed, while others show a common feature of the Caucasus: very light skin coupled with black or extremely dark hair. A lithe and erect physique were favored, both for the men and the woman, and many villages even today have large numbers of healthy elderly people, many over a hundred years of age.
Their culture was and still is strongly dominated by a warrior ethic. The battle garb of the men, the Cherkesska, is a fitted caftan-like coat with cartridges sewn across the chest, a sheepskin hat and soft-soled knee-high boots of fine leather. It has been borrowed by many neighboring peoples, most notably the slavic Cossacks, so that this costume is often thought of as being Russian. Until recently the eight tribes into which they were divided showed varying degrees of a caste system similar to that surviving in modern India. There were priest-kings, nobles who formed the warriors, freemen who carried on trade, large scale farming and manufacture, and lastly peasants, former prisoners of war who were either small farmers or who acted as retainers to the princes and nobles. In 1864, five years after their defeat at the hands of the Tsarist armies, most of the freemen and peasants emigrated and settled in the Ottoman Empire. Thus today the majority of the world's one million or so Circassians now live scattered throughout the Middle East and in cities in Europe and the U.S.A.

REFERENCES
http://www.circassianworld.com/new/articles/1124-who-are-circassians.html

Gökçen Destebaş

2-D 101010109