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Duman,Turkish rock,grunge music band.Kaan Tangöze,the vocalist and the founder of the band,went to Seattle for music education and composed his songs that he wanted to launch in Turkey.His first album included the songs that he composed with his previous band members in Seattle and Los Angeles and then he turned back to Turkey to start his new band career with Ari Barokas and Batuhan Mutlugil.They formed the group called DUMAN in 1999.

Duman completed his first album preparations,vocal Kaan,guitarist Batu,bass guitar Ari and drummer Alen, and set off for their fans;but they didn’t give any name to the group but after a short time they decided to call it Duman by being inspired from their first song ‘Halimiz Duman’.
After some time,they could create a strong admiration owing to their first album ‘Eski Köprünün Altında’ and they took a clip for some songs of this album,Hayatı Yaşa,Bebek and Köprüaltı.Prior to the clip ‘Bebek,Duman recorded their first live concert Halimiz Duman’ but they didn’t put it in the album.
Their second album ’Belki Alışman Lazım’ brougt the band a huge popularity but the real Duman appeared in 2002,when Duman got much respect thanks to Herşeyi Yak cover and took a clip for Oje,Bu Akşam and Belki Alışman Lazım.
As time went,Duman fans wanted one more album and in 2005,Duman completed the album ‘Seni Kendime Sakladım and again took a clip for Aman Aman and En Güzel Günüm Gecem.For their success,they were nominated for Altın Kelebek Awards and they won the title ‘Best Rock Group İN Turkey’.But they submitted the title to Erkin Koray by saying ‘This award is not ours,it’s Erkin Koray’s.
In 2006,Kaan and Batu were called up by the military and the band stopped their activity for a short time,during which Cengiz Baysal was added to the group instead of Alen Konakoğlu.After that.A new album called En Güzel Günüm Gecem 1999-2006 appeared and this was the best way to satisfy Duman fans.
In 2008,the band went to Ireland studios where worldwide known bands record their albums there,for the albums Duman I and Duman II.They spent 65 days and the first concert of this album was held in Istanbul Bostancı Gösteri Merkezi.In ths album,there were also songs composed by Batu and Ari.
Duman was criticized because of the song Rezil which was though to humiliate Muslim but then Kaan said they did it to criticized those who exploit the religion.
In 2009,Dibine Kadar was taken as a clip in Kemerburgaz with Duman fans and this clip was directed by Yon Thomas who has worked with Placebo,Pearl Jam and Radiohead.The second clip was taken for Senden Daha Güzel in İzmir Ooze Venue and Ankara Jolly Jocker.Althoug some disliked the clip,this was the first in that cameras were put on the heads of the group members and the clip flows from the eyes of the members.
The last album Duman Canlı appeared in 2011 and all songs were recorded live in the album.The first clip was taken for Helal Olsun in Bostancı Kültür Merkezi and this album includes both old songs but new ones also.
-Eski Köprünün Altında 1999
-Belki Alışman Lazım 2002
-Konser 2003
-Bu Akşam 2004
-Seni Kendime Sakladım 2005
-En Güzel Günüm Gecem 2006
-Rock and Coke Konseri 2006
-Duman I 2009
-Duman II 2009
-Duman Canlı 2011



EMRE KILIÇ 2B 101010044


I want to mention about the learning disability which is called Dyslexia.

Dyslexia, having been investigated for many years by the experts, is a linguistic problem forming a great obstacle for many kids today. ‘‘Dyslexia is a very broad term defining a learning disability that impairs a person's fluency or comprehension accuracy in being able to read.’’
And also, there are many famous people with Dyslexia. For example, Albert Einstein is one of the most well-known and respected scientist. But when he was a young child, he had the Dyslexia. Some of the famous people with this problem are Tom Cruise and Bill Gates.

What are the signs and symptoms of dyslexia?
Letter and number reversals are the most common warning sign. Difficulty of copying from the board or a book can also suggest problems. There may be a general disorganization of written work. The child may not be able to remember content, even if it involves a favorite video or storybook. Difficulty with left and right is common. Children with dyslexia can have difficulty in moving to the rhythm of the music.
Many people assume that it is an intellectual disability related to IQ level. However, it is not a proper attitude towards the children having this problem; therefore, teachers and parents must be very careful in this situation. Particularly, teachers should not regard these children as idiot. According to some researches, they can overcome it with the collaboration of teacher and parent. Moreover, they may have special abilties such as aptitude of painting.

Never forget. Every child is specialJ

Finally I recommend that you must watch the EVERY CHİLD İS SPECİAL to understand Dyslexia literally.




Nazire EDİPOĞLU 2/A 101010003

external image DHarfi.jpg ublin is the capital and most populous city of Ireland. The English name for the city is derived from the Irish name Dubhlinn, meaning "black pool". Dublin is situated near the midpoint of Ireland's east coast, at the mouth of the River Liffey, and at the centre of the Dublin Region.
Originally founded as a Viking settlement, it evolved into the Kingdom of Dublin and became the island's principal city following the Norman invasion. The city expanded rapidly from the 17th century, and was briefly the second largest city within the British Empire and the fifth largest in Europe. However, Dublin entered a period of stagnation following the Act of Union of 1800, but remained the economic centre for most of the island. Following the partition of Ireland in 1922, the new parliament, the Oireachtas, was located in Leinster House. Dublin became the capital of the Irish Free State, and later the Republic of Ireland.
Similar to the other cities of Cork, Limerick, Galway, and Waterford, Dublin is administered separately from its respective county with its own city council. The city is listed by the GaWC as a global city, with a ranking of Alpha-, placing Dublin among the top 30 cities in the world. It is a historical and contemporary cultural centre for the country, as well as a modern centre of education, the arts, administration, economy, and industry.

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Dublin City Council is a unicameral assembly of 52 members elected every five years from Local Election Areas. It is presided over by the Lord Mayor, who is elected for a yearly term and resides in Mansion House. Council meetings occur at Dublin City Hall, while most of its administrative activities are based in the Civic Offices on Wood Quay. The party or coalition of parties, with the majority of seats adjudicates committee members, introduces policies, and appoints the Lord Mayor. The Council passes an annual budget for spending on areas such as housing, traffic management, refuse, drainage, and planning. The Dublin City Manager is responsible for implementing City Council decisions.

As the capital city, Dublin seats the national parliament of Ireland, the Oireachtas. It is composed of the President of Ireland, Seanad Éireann as the upper house, and Dáil Éireann as the lower house. The President resides in Áras an Uachtaráin in the Phoenix Park, while both houses of the Oireachtas meet in Leinster House, a former ducal palace on Kildare Street. It has been the home of the Irish parliament since the creation of the Irish Free State in 1922. The old Irish Houses of Parliament of the Kingdom of Ireland were located in College Green.

Dublin is situated at the mouth of the River Liffey and encompasses a land area of approximately 115 km2. It is bordered by a low mountain range to the south and surrounded by flat farmland to the north and west. The Liffey divides the city in two between the Northside and the Southside. Each of these is further divided by 2 lesser rivers, the River Tolka running northwest from Dubin Bay, and the River Dodder running southwest from the mouth of the Lifrey. Two further water bodies - the Grand Canal on the southside and the Royal Canal on the northside - ring the inner city on their way to the west and the River Shannon
The Liffey bends at Leixlip from a predominantly east-west direction to a southwesterly route, and this point also marks the change from urban development to a more agricultural land usage.

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Similar to much of northwest Europe, Dublin experiences a maritime climate with mild winters, cool summers, and a lack of temperature extremes. The average maximum January temperature is 8.3 °C (47 °F), while the average maximum July temperature is 19.6 °C (67 °F). On average, the sunniest months are May and June, while the wettest month is December with 73 mm (3 in) of rain, and the driest month is July with 43 mm (2 in). Rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the year.


Dublin has many landmarks and monuments dating back hundreds of years. One of the oldest is Dublin Castle, which was first founded as a major defensive work on the orders of King John of England in 1204, shortly after the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169, when it was commanded that a castle be built with strong walls and good ditches for the defence of the city, the administration of justice, and the protection of the King’s treasure. Largely complete by 1230, the castle was of typical Norman courtyard design, with a central square without a keep, bounded on all sides by tall defensive walls and protected at each corner by a circular tower. Sited to the south-east of Norman Dublin, the castle formed one corner of the outer perimeter of the city, using the River Poddle as a natural means of defence.
Other popular landmarks and monuments include the Mansion House, the Anna Livia monument, the Molly Malone statue, Christ Church Cathedral, St Patrick's Cathedral, Saint Francis Xavier Church on Upper Gardiner Street near Mountjoy Square, The Custom House, and Áras an Uachtaráin. The Poolbeg Towers are also iconic features of Dublin and are visible in many spots around the city.

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The Dublin region is the economic centre of Ireland, and was at the forefront of the country's rapid economic expansion during the Celtic Tiger period. In 2009, Dublin was listed as the fourth richest city in the world by purchasing power and 10th richest by personal income. According to Mercer's 2011 Worldwide Cost of Living Survey, Dublin is the 13th most expensive city in the European Union (down from 10th in 2010) and the 58th most expensive place to live in the world (down from 42nd in 2010). As of 2005, approximately 800,000 people were employed in the Greater Dublin Area, of whom around 600,000 were employed in the services sector and 200,000 in the industrial sector.
Many of Dublin's traditional industries, such as food processing, textile manufacturing, brewing, and distilling have gradually declined, although Guinness has been brewed at the St. James's Gate Brewery since 1759. Economic improvements in the 1990s have attracted a large number of global pharmaceutical, information and communications technology companies to the city and Greater Dublin Area. Companies such as Microsoft, Google, Amazon, eBay, PayPal, Yahoo!, Facebook, Twitter and Pfizer now have European headquarters and/or operational bases in the city. Intel and Hewlett-Packard have large manufacturing plants in Leixlip, County Kildare, 15 km (9 mi) to the west.


Burcu Salğara 2.c 101010076


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It is predicted that all dinosaurs became extinct around the date of 61 million years ago which is shortly past the Cretaceous Period. No one really knows for sure on how exactly dinosaurs became extinct but there is much evidence showing a sudden stop as opposed to the dinosaurs slowly dying off. With this strange mystery comes many theories on the possible reasons to what happened to stop their species. Click to the top links to read about the different ideas. Some are not very realistic as many are just suggestions, and are not backed up with proof. The theory on the Chicxulub crater is pretty much what most scientists think caused end of prehistoric animals and dinosaurs.

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Dinosaur Extinction: K-T Event Questions Remain

By Jennifer Viegas

During their 150 million years on the planet, dinosaurs evolved so many protective features, ranging from spiked tail clubs to helmet-like crests, that they seemed indestructible. Just 10 million years before the non-avian dinosaurs died out, dino populations as a whole were still thriving, with more different species than ever before colonizing the continents. But the Cretaceous-Tertiary extinction event, also known as the K-T extinction, put an end to the dinosaur era. It’s still a great mystery why such an apparently abrupt mass extinction occurred 65 million years ago, but a number of theories have been proposed.
Deadly Germs and Self-Destruction
Could dinosaurs have eaten each other to death? Experts in the past speculated that carnivores consumed so many herbivores that the latter went extinct, leading to the death of the meat eaters. Other scientists wondered if defective hormones and other degeneration weakened dinosaur populations. Yet another theory is that poisonous plants, or a deadly pandemic, caused great die-offs. Few of these hypotheses have been supported in recent years, however.
Volcanic activity remains a debated theory. It is known that at the end of the Cretaceous period multiple volcanoes erupted, particularly at what is now central India. These led to fiery lava flows that spewed noxious acid and carbon dioxide into the air. But would this air change have been enough to kill all the world’s dinosaurs? Although still unproven, it’s possible that a domino effect, leading to temperature increases, ozone layer reduction and lethal radiation, could have sent dinosaur populations into a nosedive over a relatively short period of time.
Asteroid Collision
One of the most widely researched theories holds that a large asteroid could have slammed into Earth. If big enough, such an asteroid could form a huge crater, sending dust and water into the atmosphere. If this didn’t choke out the dinosaurs, the resulting possible climate change could have done the dirty deed. Freezing cold weather would have followed such a crash, due to dust and moisture-forming clouds that would’ve been carried by strong winds. If this again didn’t kill the dinosaurs outright, it could have wiped out vegetation, starving plant-eating dinosaurs, a food source for carnivorous dinosaurs.
Some research teams believe they have found evidence of such a destructive asteroid. A crater about 186 miles across was unearthed in Mexico. Fossils and damaged sand grains in North America may also suggest that flowering plants disappeared relatively quickly at the end of the Cretaceous. A rare, meteorite-associated element known as iridium additionally might have made an earthly impact, since a thin deposit of it was discovered in 1979. While other theories for the K-T event abound, such as deadly radiation emitted from an exploding star or a sudden reversal of Earth’s magnetic field, the asteroid collision theory appears to be the most widely accepted explanation for the non-avian dinosaur demise.
Dinosaurs in our Midst
There is little doubt that non-avian dinosaurs disappeared as the Cretaceous came to a close. But little winged, feathered "dinosaurs," that is to say theropods, may still be with us. Most paleontologists now believe that birds evolved from certain dinosaurs. If so, the over 10,000 species of birds could serve as living proof that the dinosaurs were, and may continue to be, the most successful creatures ever to inhabit the Earth.


Füsun Kural
2-A 101010006


All of us dream and we have some questions about dreams. For instance why humans dream, how dreams come about, do blinds dream, and so many questions like these. There are so many questions about dream but we can start what a dream is.

The word dream has four interrelated meaning. When we put altogether them we know what dream is. First a dream is a form of thinking that occurs when you are sleeping. It is a minimal level of brain activation. When you are dreaming external stimuli are blocked from entry into the mind and the system called self system is shut down. Second a dream is something we experience because the thinking is very real and makes use of our senses especially seeing and hearing because usually we are the main actor and because a dream is sometimes very emotional. Third a dream is what we remember in the morning so it is a memory of dreaming experience. Fourth a dream can also mean the spoken or written report we give to others about that experiences which is the only way anyone else can ever know about another person’s dreams.
Dreams can result from a variety of factors for instance in some circumstances eating something difficult to digest before bed can cause dream’s to be led as meaningless images. In other instances flu can cause dreams to become fragmented visions caused from a sick body trying to heal. In other instances dream can reveal emotional struggles. Although dreams can result from a variety of different factors more often they do not. The dreams can give us great insights into what we are dealing with in our lives at a particular moment in time. They can depict both minor and major emotional struggles. They can also depict problems you have within yourself. These depictions can be some of the most profound life changing massages you will ever receive. dream-1722[1].jpg
Everybody wonders that do dreams have a meaning or do dreams say us future. There are many such lists but we don’t trust them. This is not to say that dreams don’t have symbolic meanings, rather everyone has their own set of symbols. There is no one better than you for analyzing for your own dreams only you can understand what you need. A therapist can look at your life and see from the outside what appears to be problem but only you can see yourself from the inside having full knowledge of all of your personal history and all of your secrets. No therapists or no books help you if you leave out what could be the most important information of all when trying to deal with a symptom you may be experiencing. You are the only one who knows the full story.
Every human beings dream even blind people. People who become blind after birth can see images in their dreams. People who are born blind don’t see any images in their dreams. But have dreams equally vivid involving their other sense of sound, smell, touch and emotion. It may be hard for a seeing person to imagine but the body’s need for sleep is so strong that it is able to handle virtually all physical situations to make it happen.
An interesting title is that men and woman have different dreams and different physical reactions. Men tend to dream more about other men, while women tent to dream equally about men and women.
Although every human beings dreams we can never for sure animals dream too. According to some researchers they have Rapid Eye Movement sleep which is more or less associated with dreams. All mammals have REM sleep but that does not prove that they dream. Humans don’t always dream during REM and what’s more, some dreams happen outside of REM.
If you learn more about dreams you can look at:
2/A NUMBER :101010021


Doctor Who

Doctor Who is a British science fiction television programme produced by the BBC. The programme depicts the adventures of a Time Lord, a time-travelling, humanoid alien known as the Doctor who explores the universe in a sentient, telepathic time machine called the TARDIS that flies through time and space, whose exterior appears as a blue police box from 1963 London, when the series first aired. Along with a succession of companions, he faces a variety of foes while working to save civilisations, help people and right wrongs.The programme originally ran from 1963 to 1989.

The programme is listed in Guinness World Records as the longest-running science fiction television show in the world, and as the "most successful" science fiction series of all time, in terms of its overall broadcast ratings, DVD and book sales and iTunes traffic. It has been recognised for its imaginative stories, creative low-budget special effects during its original run, and pioneering use of electronic music (originally produced by the BBC Radiophonic Workshop). The show is a significant part of British popular culture in the United Kingdom, and elsewhere it has become a cult television favourite. The show has influenced generations of British television professionals, many of whom grew up watching the series. It has received recognition from critics and the public as one of the finest British television programmes, including the BAFTA Award for Best Drama Series in 2006, and five consecutive wins at the National Television Awards from 2005 to 2010, in the Drama category while under Russell T Davies' reign as executive producer. In 2011 Matt Smith became the first actor to be nominated for a BAFTA for portraying the Doctor, but lost to Daniel Rigby.

The character of the Doctor was initially shrouded in mystery. All that was known about him in the programme's early days was that he was an eccentric alien traveller of great intelligence who battled injustice while exploring time and space in an unreliable time machine, the "TARDIS", (an acronym for Time And Relative Dimension(s) In Space), which appears much larger on the inside than on the outside.

The initially irascible and slightly sinister Doctor quickly mellowed into a more compassionate figure. It was eventually revealed that he had been on the run from his own people, the Time Lords of the planet Gallifrey. His main enemies are Daleks which can be seen in the video as metal creatures uttering like “It begins”. His present companions are Amy Pond (Karen Gillan) and Rory Williams(Arthur Darvill) as Amy’s husband.

Arch Enemy - Daleks
The Dalek race, which first appeared in the show's second serial in 1963, are Doctor Who's oldest antagonists. The Daleks were Kaleds from the planet Skaro, mutated by the scientist Davros and housed in tank-like mechanical armour shells for mobility. Their chief role in the plot of the series, as they frequently remark in their instantly recognisable metallic voices, is to "exterminate" all beings inferior to themselves, even attacking the Time Lords in the often-referred-to-but-never-shown Time War. The Daleks' most recent appearance was in the 2011 episode The Wedding of River Song. They continue to be a recurring 'monster' within the Doctor Who franchise. Davros himself has also been a recurring figure since his debut in Genesis of the Daleks, although played by several different actors.
The Daleks were created by writer Terry Nation (who intended them to be an allegory of the Nazis) and BBC designer Raymond Cusick. The Daleks' début in the programme's second serial, The Daleks (1963–64), made both the Daleks and Doctor Who very popular. A Dalek appeared on a postage stamp celebrating British popular culture in 1999, photographed by Lord Snowdon. In the new series Daleks now come in a range of colours.

Changes of appearance
As a Time Lord, the Doctor has the ability to regenerate his body when near death. Introduced into the storyline as a way of continuing the series when the writers were faced with the departure of lead actor William Hartnell in 1966, it has continued to be a major element of the series, allowing for the recasting of the lead actor when the need arises. The serials The Deadly Assassin and Mawdryn Undead and the 1996 TV film suggest that a Time Lord can regenerate 12 times, for a total of 13 incarnations.
The Doctor has fully gone through this process and its resulting after-effects on ten occasions, with each of his incarnations having their own quirks and abilities but otherwise sharing the consciousness, memories, experience and basic personality of the previous incarnations.

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The Present Doctor (Matt Smith) - Rory Williams(Arthur Darvill) - Amy Pond (Karen Gillan)

Versions_of_the_Doctor.jpg All the actors playing the “Doctor” from 1963 to 2012


Cenk Yusufoğlu 2-D 101010116


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Childhood And Teenage Years:
Diana Frances Spencer, was born on July 1, 1961, at Park House near Sandringham, Norfolk. She was the youngest daughter of the then Viscount and Viscountess Althorp, now the late Earl Spencer and the Hon Mrs Shand-Kydd. She had two elder sisters, Jane and Sarah, and a younger brother, Charles.
The root of Diana's insecurity lay in her upbringing, despite its privileges. Her family was living on the Queen's estate at Sandringham where her father had rented Park House. He had been a royal equerry for both King George VI and the young Queen Elizabeth II.
The Queen had been the chief guest when Diana's parents were married in 1954; the ceremony at Westminster Abbey was one of the social events of the year.
But Diana was only six when her parents split up. She would always remember the crunch of her mother's departing footsteps on the gravel drive. The children became pawns in a bitter custody dispute.
Lady Diana was sent to boarding school, eventually attending West Heath Public School in Kent. Here she excelled at sport, particularly swimming, but she failed all her O levels. Nevertheless, in later years she recalled fond schoolday memories, and supported her old school.
After school, she worked in London, first as a nanny, occasionally a cook, and then as an assistant at the Young England kindergarten in Knightsbridge.

Rumours spread that her friendship with the Prince of Wales was blossoming into something more serious. Press and television besieged her at every turn. But her days at work were numbered. The Palace tried in vain to play down the speculation. And on February 24, 1981 the engagement became official.

The Wedding
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The wedding took place at St. Paul's Cathedral on a perfect July day. Millions of television viewers around the world were dazzled by the event, with a further 600,000 lining the route from Buckingham Palace to the Cathedral. She was the first Englishwoman to marry an heir to the throne for 300 years.

Diana was just 20. Under the watchful eyes of her mother, and on the reassuring arm of her father, Diana prepared to take her wedding vows. She showed nerves only once, when she struggled with getting her husband's many names in the right order.

And so the Royal Family welcomed a newcomer to its midst. It was a moment of particular satisfaction for the Queen Mother - herself born a Commoner, who had trodden this path some 60 years before.

Family Life

After the wedding, the Princess of Wales quickly became involved in the official duties of the
Royal family. Soon she was on a constant round of visits to nurseries, to schools, to hospitals.
The public singled her out for public affection: she seemed so genuinely pleased to be with ordinary folk, even if she could no longer be ordinary herself.external image princess_diana_gallery_12.jpgexternal image princess_diana_gallery_26.jpg

Diana had always longed for a big family. Within a year of her marriage, on June 21, 1982, she gave birth to a son, Prince William.

A second son,|Henry Charles Albert David, was born two years after William, on 15 September 1984 The Princess asserted she and the Prince were closest during her pregnancy as the younger prince has always been known. She was aware their second child was a boy, but did not share the knowledge with anyone else, including the external image Princess_Diana_Cannes.jpgPrince of Wales
Separation And Divorce

She gave an unprecedented and remarkably open interview with the BBC's Panoramaprogramme on November 20, 1995. Watched by millions, she described her post-natal depression, the breakdown of her marriage to Prince Charles, her tense relationship with the Royal Family as a whole and, most shocking of all, she claimed that her estranged husband did not wish to be king.
Diana accepted divorce only after pressure from the Queen. When it came through - on August 28th 1996 - she told a friend it was the saddest day of her life.
Diana, now officially, Diana, Princess of Wales, gave up all but a small nucleus of her charity work as she sought a new role for herself. She had a clear idea of what that role as "Queen of Hearts" should be and she illustrated it by visits abroad. In June 1997 she visited Mother Teresa who was in poor health.

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On 31 August 1997, Diana was fatally injured in a car crash in the Pont de l'Alma road tunnel in Paris, which also caused the deaths of her companion, Dodi Fayed and the driver, Henri Paul, acting security manager of the Hôtel Ritz Paris. Millions of people watched her funeral.
The sudden and unexpected death of an extraordinarily popular royal figure brought statements from senior figures worldwide and many tributes by members of the public. People left public offerings of flowers, candles, cards and personal messages outside Kensington Palace for many months.
Diana's funeral took place in Westminster Abbey on 6 September 1997. The previous day Queen Elizabeth II had paid tribute to her in a live television broadcast. Her sons, the Princes William and Harry, walked in the funeral procession behind her coffin, along with the Prince of Wales and the Duke of Edinburgh, and with Diana's brother, Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer. Lord Spencer said of his sister, "She proved in the last year that she needed no royal title to continue to generate her particular brand of magic.



00130000-decorative-initial-d-q75-494x500.jpgown syndrome is
a chromosomal disorder caused by an error in cell division that results in an extra 21st chromosome. The condition leads to impairments in both cognitive ability and physical growth that range from mild to moderate developmental disabilities. Through a series of screenings and tests, Down syndrome can be detected before and after a baby is born.

230px-Drill.jpg Boy with Down sydrome assembling a bookcase

The only factor known to affect the probability of having a baby with Down syndrome is maternal age. That is, less than one in 1,000 pregnancies for mothers less than 30 years of age results in a baby with Down syndrome. For mothers who are 44 years of age, about 1 in 35 pregnancies results in a baby with Down syndrome. Because younger women generally have more children, about 75 - 80% of children with Down syndrome are born to younger women.

What causes Down syndrome?Down syndrome occurs because of an abnormality characterized by an extra copy of genetic material on all or part of the 21st chromosome. Every cell in the body contains genes that are grouped along chromosomes in the cell's nucleus or center. There are normally 46 chromosomes in each cell, 23 inherited from your mother and 23 from your father. When some or all of a person's cells have an extra full or partial copy of chromosome 21, the result is Down syndrome.

The most common form of Down syndrome is known as Trisomy 21, a condition where individuals have 47 chromosomes in each cell instead of 46. This is caused by an error in cell division called nondisjunction, which leaves a sperm or egg cell with an extra copy of chromosome 21 before or at conception. Trisomy 21 accounts for 95% of Down syndrome cases, with 88% originating from nondisjunction of the mother's egg cell.

The remaining 5% of Down syndrome cases are due to conditions called mosaicism and translocation. Mosaic Down syndrome results when some cells in the body are normal while others have Trisomy 21. Robertsonian translocation occurs when part of chromosome 21 breaks off during cell division and attaches to another chromosome (usually chromosome 14). The presence of this extra part of chromosome 21 causes Down some syndrome characteristics. Although a person with a translocation may appear physically normal, he or she has a greater risk of producing a child with an extra 21st chromosome.

What are characteristics of people with Down syndrome?Individuals with Down syndrome often have distinct physical characteristics, unique health issues, and variability in cognitive development. Physical characteristics include:
  • Eyes that have an upward slant, oblique fissures, epicanthic skin folds on the inner corner, and white spots on the iris
  • Low muscle tone
  • Small stature and short neck
  • Flat nasal bridge
  • Single, deep creases across the center of the palm
  • Protruding tongue
  • Large space between large and second toe
  • A single flexion furrow of the fifth finger


Individuals with Down syndrome usually have cognitive development profiles indicative of mild to moderate mental retardation. However, cognitive development in children with Down syndrome is quite variable. Children with Down syndrome often have a speech delay and require speech therapy to assist with expressive language. In addition, fine motor skills are delayed and tend to lag behind gross motor skills. Children with Down syndrome may not walk until age 4, but some will walk at age 2. Although many with the condition experience developmental delays, it is not uncommon for those with Down syndrome to attend school and become active, working members in the community.

00130000-decorative-initial-d-q75-494x500.jpgelhi is northern India's largest city. One part of it, known as New Delhi (Hindi: नई दिल्ली Naï Dillî), is officially designated the capital of India, but the names are often used interchangeably. It is the largest metropolis by area and the second-largest metropolis by population in India. It is the eighth largest metropolis in the world by population with 16.7 million inhabitants in the Territory at the 2011 Census.

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Humayun's tomb Diwan-i-Khas
There are nearly 22.2 million residents in the greater National Capital Region urban area (which also includes the cities Noida, Greater Noida, Ghaziabad, Gurgaon and Faridabad along with other smaller nearby towns). The name Delhi is often also used to include urban areas near the NCT, as well as to refer to New Delhi, the capital of India, which lies within the metropolis. Although technically a federally administered union territory, the political administration of the NCT of Delhi today more closely resembles that of a state of India with its own legislature, high court and an executive council of ministers headed by a Chief Minister. New Delhi, jointly administered by both the federal Government of India and the local Government of Delhi, is also the capital of the NCT of Delhi.
It is a misconception that Delhi was awarded the status of "State" after The Constitution (69th Amendment) Act, 1991, which isn't the case. Delhi is still a union territory which has been given special status of National Capital Region. The Act made provision for Legislative assembly and a council of ministers for Delhi.
Located on the banks of the River Yamuna, Delhi has been known to be continuously inhabited since at least the 6th century BCE, though human habitation is believed to have existed since the second millennium BCE. Delhi is also widely believed to have been the site of Indrapratsha, the legendary capital of the Pandavas during the times of the Mahabharata.
Delhi re-emerged as a major political, cultural and commercial city along the trade routes between northwest India and the Gangetic plain after the rise of the Delhi sultanates. It is the site of many ancient and medieval monuments, archaeological sites and remains. In 1639, Mughal emperor Shahjahan built a new walled city in Delhi which served as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1649 to 1857.

This video is about monuments in India.

Delhi has plenty of parks and gardens. New Delhi, a part of Delhi is one of world's Greenest Capital cities. Delhi Ridge, the last leg of the Aravalli Range is known as Delhi's Green Lung. It runs through South Delhi and terminates in Central Delhi. This makes these two regions the greenest in the city. Owing to its greens, Delhi is home to such large number of birds that it is the world's most bird enriched Capital, only after Kenya's Nairobi.
The definition of capital of India New Delhi within Delhi is unclear and complex. Even administratively, the demarcation between Delhi and New Delhi is not clear. Government of India and Government of Delhi have not clearly defined the area and boundaries of New Delhi. The boundaries of areas of New Delhi Municipal Council (NDMC) and New Delhi District of Delhi do not completely overlap.
Boundaries of New Delhi District of Delhi Police is again different from boundaries of NDMC and New Delhi district. For example, AIIMS falls within the NDMC boundary but outside the New Delhi districts of both Delhi Govt. and Delhi Police. It comes under South Delhi district of Delhi Govt. and Delhi Police. IIT Delhi falls under none of the New Delhi designated areas (i.e. NDMC and New Delhi district) but official address of IIT Delhi is IIT Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110 016. Similarly, most of the government offices, institutes, post offices, fire stations and police stations located outside of the areas NDMC and New Delhi district have 'New Delhi' in their official addresses. In 1920s, when British constructed New Delhi, there were only two Delhis.
Old walled city called Old Delhi and the new city designed by Edwin Lutyens to serve as capital of British India, which was called 'New Delhi'. Rest of Delhi was rural. But after independence as more and more areas around New Delhi urbanised they also became a part of New Delhi as they were also a part of Delhi which was 'new'. Now, almost all of National Capital Territory of Delhi, with exceptions of old city called Old Delhi, Civil Lines area, Trans-Yamuna region, some rural areas and some underdeveloped parts of Delhi (e.g. Ashok Vihar, Timarpur, Nangloi, Sultanpuri, Mangolpuri, Badarpur etc.), is designated as 'New Delhi' in postal addresses. Most of the times, the terms 'Delhi' and 'New Delhi' are used interchangeably.


Reyhan Durmuş
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This article is about the rock band. For the song, see Deep purple ( song ). For their eponymous third album, see Deep purple ( album ).

Deep Purple are an English rock band formed in Hertford in 1968. They are considered to be among the pioneers of heavy metal and modern hard rock, although some band members claimed that their music cannot be categorised as belonging to any one genre. They were once listed by the Guiness Book of World Records as “ the loudest group” and have sold over 100 millions albums worldwide, including 7.5 million certified units in the US. Deep Purple were ranked on VH1’s Greatest Artists of Hard Rock programme.

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The band has gone through many line-up changes and an eight-year hiatus (1976–84). The 1968–76 line-ups are commonly labelled Mark I, II, III and IV. Their second and most commercially successful line-up featured Ian Gıllan (vocals), Roger Glover (bass),Jon Lord (keyboards), Ian Paice (drums), and Ritchie Blackmore (guitar). This line-up was active from 1969 to 1973, and was revived from 1984 to 1989, and again in 1993, before the rift between Blackmore and other members became unbridgeable. The current line-up (including guitarist Steve Morse) has been much more stable, although Lord's retirement from the band in 2002 has left Paice as the only original Deep Purple member still in the band. As of 2012, Deep Purple have not been nominated for the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

Early Years

America with a cover of Joe South’s Hush and by October 1968, the song had reached number 4 on the Billboard Hot 100 in the US and number 2 on the Canadian RPM chart. That same month, Deep Purple was booked to support Cream on their Goodbyetour.

The band's second album, The Book of Taliesyn was released in North America to coincide with the tour, reaching number 38 on the Billboard charts and number 21 on the RPM charts, although it would not be released in their home country until the following year. Early 1969 saw Deep Purple record their third album, simply titled Deep Purple. The album contained strings and woodwind on one track ("April"), showcasing Lord's classical antecedents such as Bach and Rimsky-Korsakov, and several other influences were in evidence, notably Vanilla Fudge. (Lord and Blackmore had even claimed the group wanted to be a "Vanilla Fudge clone".) Not satisfied with the possibilities for singles off this album, the band also recorded a single called "Emmaretta", named for Emmaretta Marks, then a cast member of the musical Hair, whom Evans was trying to seduce. This would be the last recording by the original line-up.

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Unfortunately, Deep Purple's troubled North American record label, Tetragrammaton, delayed production of the Deep Purple album until after the band's 1969 American tour ended. This, as well as lackluster promotion by the nearly-broke label, caused the album to sell poorly, finishing well out of the Billboard Top 100. Soon after the third album's eventual release, Tetragrammaton went out of business, leaving the band with no money and an uncertain future. (Tetragrammaton's assets were assumed by Warner Bros. Records who would release Deep Purple's records in the US throughout the 1970s.) During the 1969 American tour, Lord and Blackmore met with Paice to discuss their desire to take the band in a heavier direction. Feeling that Evans and Simper would not fit well with a heavy rock style, both were replaced that summer. Paice stated, "A change had to come. If they hadn't left, the band would have totally disintegrated.

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With an ever-increasing fan base, picking up new listeners around the world thanks to their drive to tour familiar and less-travelled places, it’s no wonder Deep Purple operates on fresh cycles of adrenalin. No resting on yesteryear. Deep Purple has released 4 studio albums since 1996, but that total is augmented by an abundance of solo work and special projects from all 5 band members.
Ian Gillan, Roger Glover, Ian Paice, Steve Morse and Don Airey, Mark VIII of the band, continue to travel the scope of hard rock — the textures and nuances of recent works are anything but thudding retreads. If you set a random play setting for the band’s entire catalogue, the result is one of the finest musical outputs to grace rock music.
The latter-year Purple has moved progressively into new areas, piquing fans’ interest who were not born when the mighty Purple machine ruled the music world’s money trees. Their holy grail of In Rock (1970) Machine Head (1972) and Made In Japan released in 1973 catapulted Deep Purple to the top in concert grosses and album sales around the world. Smoke On The Water ascended to mega-status — simply a perfect track.
Having amassed so many songs that get coined under the “classic” moniker, setlists have been a never-ending debate among diehards and newer fans. But Deep Purple have been more than in synch with fans’ tastes to remain a powerful drawing force since their formation in 1968.
These days, happy faces reside from both the stage and audience. When the music is this good, smiles reign supreme.


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You Think You Can't Dance? Come on! Everbody can dance! d3.jpg

Dance is a type of art that generally refers to movement of the body, usually rhythmic and to music, performed in many different cultures and used as a form of expression, social interaction or presented in a spiritual or performance setting.
Dance may also be regarded as a form of nonverbal communication between humans, and is also performed by other animals (bee dance, patterns of behaviour such as a mating dance). Gymnastics, figure skating and synchronized swimming are sports that incorporate dance, while martial arts kata are often compared to dances.
Definitions of what constitutes dance are dependent on social, cultural, aesthetic, artistic and moral constraints and range from functional movement (such as folk dance) to virtuoso techniques such as ballet. Dance can be participatory, social or performed for an audience. It can also be ceremonial or competitive. Dance movements may be without significance in themselves, such as in ballet or European folk dance, or have a gestural vocabulary/symbolic system as in many Asian dances. Dance can embody or express ideas, emotions or tell a story.d2.jpg

Dancing has evolved many styles. Breakdancing and Krumping are related to the hip hop culture. African dance is interpretative. Ballet, Ballroom, Waltz, and Tango are classical styles of dance while Square Dance and the Electric Slide are forms of step dances. d1.jpg

Every dance, no matter what style, has something in common. It not only involves flexibility and body movement, but also physics. If the proper physics are not taken into consideration, injuries may occur.
Dance is an easy art. Everyone can dance. People should enjoy the music, the ambience and every movement of their body which shows that they enjoy it.Dance is not only to have fun, but also good for health. It helps people give weight off. It also helps people to stay fit and flexible. People feel free and happy while they dance and they feel more enerjetic.
References: http://www.merchantcircle.com/blogs/PITTSBURGH.HEAT.HIP.HOP.DANCE.412-969-8344?utm_source=profile&utm_medium=newsfeed http://testdrivinglife.blogspot.com/2011_06_01_archive.html
Ayşenur Parmaksız 101010923 2-D


Dolphins and whales make breathing with lungs as all other mammals. This means that they will be unable to breathe while they are in water, like fish. For this reason, they have to regularly out on the water surface to breathe. There is a hole, on their heads to taking air. For the dolphins to breathe is not a reflex as in humans or other mammals , breathe is a willed act. The dolphins live in very large groups. Dolphins are carnivores and typically feed on fish and squid. Dolphins are the smartest creatures of the animal kingdom. They are very friendly and sympathetic. For this reason people like they very much. for this reason, people likes dolphins very much.
Dolphins can swim up to260 m. below the surface of the ocean. However they are mainly shallow divers as they need to reach the surface to breathe. Dolphins can stay up to 15 minutes under water. They only do this some times as they usually stay only a few minutes diving before reaching the surface for air. Dolphins use a technique called echolocation.
This technique uses the same principles of a radar, and it is used to find food and navigate. Dolphins are social beings. Dolphins live in groups and cooperate among each other for activities like getting food and calf rising. They are warm-blooded. As mammals, dolphins are warm blooded and their internal temperature is around 36 degrees. To conserve this temperature they are surrounded by a thick layer of fat called “blubber” just below the skin. The botllenose dolphin brain weighs 1500-1600 grams. While average human brain weighs 1200-1300 grs. This is not a conclusive evidence of dolphin intelligence as many other factors might be the cause of intelligence according to scientists. Dolphins communicate efficiently. Dolphins can make a unique signature whistle that may help individual dolphins recognize each other, collaborate and perform several other kinds of communication. Dolphins can swim 5 to12 kilometersper hour. This will depend on the species and situation, although fastest dolphins can reach up to32 km/h.


Dolphins have large brains for their bodies — in fact, a bottlenose dolphin is second only to humans in the ratio of brain size to body size. Researchers have also pointed to the parallels in the organization of dolphin and primate brains as more evidence of high intelligence in dolphins. Some have gone so far as to suggest that dolphins actually have a language that humans simply cannot comprehend.


But others say that in our enthusiasm to anthropomorphize dolphins, we give them powers they just don't possess. A closer look suggests that much of the dolphin's large brain is taken up with echolocation and handling acoustical information — processes at which they excel. But dolphins tend to rank at about the level of elephants in "intelligence" tests and haven't shown any unusual talent at problem solving.They are excellent mimics of sounds and clearly communicate with one another, but does that mean they "talk?" No one less than Aristotle once wrote, "The voice of the dolphin in the air is like that of the human in that they can pronounce vowels and combinations of vowels, but have difficulties with the consonants." But a more scientific analysis of dolphin sounds suggests that for all their communication skills, dolphins lack the repertoire to have anything approaching language as we know it.Dolphins belong to the family Dolphins possess a distinct beak. Their teeth are conical in shape. Most species of dolphins are larger than porpoises, with the males usually being larger than the females. The family Delphinidae is the largest and most diverse family of the cetacean order and includes 26 living species. Several species of dolphins are found in Hawaiian waters.





Bousra Faikoglou