F.jpgacebook Addiction Disorder (FAD)


“Okay, I admit it. I am truly addicted to Facebook,” said teenage blogger Heidi Barry-Rodriquez in 2007 . In 2009, teen Neeka Salmasi described the social networking giant as being “like an addiction”. This year, a casino site mentioned that “Facebook provides the atmosphere where it is tough to walk away” in a direct comparison to gambling addiction. A quick web search and it becomes appallingly evident that we have a problem.Text messaging is no longer the biggest teenage obsession, and long gone are the days where the biggest worries for parents were celebrity crushes, massive phone bills from ridiculously long phone calls and chocolate overloads. These teenage obsessions still exist, but in today’s day and age, and in comparison to the Facebook craze, they seem rather insignificant.
Facebook is taking over the world, and that’s no exaggeration. Everyone from eager-to-fit-in tweens to educated business people to intrigued grandparents has joined the phenomenon, and unsurprisingly many teenagers have also caught Facebook fever. And like with many of the latest attention-grabbing trends, some teenagers can go a little overboard when participating in them. Perhaps we join Facebook because everyone has an account and, as teenagers, the need to fit in is just too great, or perhaps there’s just a special something that has helped the social networking site attract so many million people. Teenagers have a tendency to become obsessive with the ‘in’ thing and Facebook, the trend of the decade, is no exception; the question is, have we overdone in? And is there really such thing as Facebook addiction?
( Listen to this funny song to understand what Facebook Fever is. If you want to see the lyrics clik Facebook song lyrics)
An American psychologist believes so. In fact, he’s even introduced a new term to describe such an addiction. FAD, or Facebook Addiction Disorder, is a condition that is defined by hours spent on Facebook, so much time in fact that the healthy balance of the individual’s life is affected. It has been said that approximately 350 million people are suffering from the disorder that is detected through a simple set of six-criteria. People who are victims of the condition must have at least 2-3 of the following criteria during a 6-8 month time period.
  1. Tolerance: This term is used to describe the desperate behavior of a Facebook addict. They spend an increasing amount of time on the site, coming to a stage where they need it in order to obtain satisfaction or on the other extreme, it is having a detrimental affect on them as a person and their life. For the family members and friends who think they are dealing with an addict, a sign to look out for are multiple Facebook windows open. Three or more confirms that they are indeed suffering from this condition.
  2. Withdrawal symptoms: These become obvious when one is restricted from using Facebook because they have to participate in normal everyday activities. Common signs are anxiety, distress and the need to talk about Facebook and what might have been posted on their wall in their absence.
  3. Reduction of normal social/recreational activities: Someone suffering from FAD will reduce the time spent catching up with friends, playing sport or whatever it is they used to enjoy doing, to simply spend time on Facebook. Instead of catching up with a friend for coffee, they will send a Facebook message. A dinner date will be substituted with a messenger chat. In extreme cases, the person will even stop answering their parent’s phone calls, instead insisting that they use Facebook to contact them.
  4. Virtual dates: It is obvious that things are extreme when real dates are replaced with virtual dates. Instead of going to the movies or out to dinner, they tell their partner to be online at a certain time.
  5. Fake friends: If 8 out of 10 people shown on their Facebook page are complete strangers, it is undeniable: they have a serious case of FAD.
  6. Complete addiction: When they meet new people, they say their name, followed by “I’ll talk to you on Facebook”, or for those who are extremely bad, “I’ll see you in Facebook”. Their pets have Facebook pages, and any notifications, wall posts, inboxes or friend requests that they receive give them a high, one which can be compared to that gambling addicts get from the pokies or roulette table.
So someone believes that addiction to the net is a real condition that needs to be treated just like any other addiction, with care and caution, but is an obsession with Facebook a real condition, or is FAD really just the latest fad?

Either way, Facebook obsessions are definitely present in today’s society and whether it is a disorder or not, something needs to be done to fix it. Forget the fancy name and look at the facts. Many people, teenagers in particular, are spending too much time online. People’s lives are being affected because of the hours spent looking at profiles and pictures. Facebook, very beneficial in some ways, is having a detrimental affect on the everyday behaviors of people around the world. Having seen the affects of too much time online firsthand, I know this to be true. Nobody can possibly disagree when the facts speak for themselves and when an individual’s online ‘life’ becomes more important than their real one, we know that there is a serious problem that needs to be addressed.
But, what to do about it? How can we possibly fix a problem that has affected more than a third of the world’s population? That is a question I can’t answer, but I do know that our parents can play an important role, well, that is if the addicted is still young enough to be influenced by their parents. There are two kinds of parents in my area, both from different ends of the spectrum. On one side we have the Facebook haters, the parents who don’t have Facebook, don’t understand Facebook and never want to understand Facebook. On the other side, we have the Facebook lovers, those who act more like their teenage children than their parents. They’ve befriended their kids online, participate in their online conversations, comment on their photos and send messages from the lounge room to the bedroom instead of just walking up the hallway and keeping matters that should be kept private, well, private. Don’t believe me? I completely understand. It definitely sounds strange. But the truth is I actually know people like this and well I can only conclude one thing: that these parents, in an attempt to be their teen’s friend rather than their parent, have also been swept up in the Facebook craze and are now suffering from a similar sort of addiction. The apple really does never land far from the tree.
external image Parents-Worst-Facebook-Nightmare.gif

I’m not sure what the experts say about the treatment of such conditions, but I do know one thing; like with all mental disorders, there will be no easy fix. I think that to begin with we all need to take a good look at ourselves and our behavior. If you’re Facebook time is eating into your social time, or your sport time, or your study time, something has gone seriously wrong. You need to go back and readjust, because to keep a healthy balance is the key to a happy, healthy life. It won’t be easy, and it certainly won’t happen overnight, but eventually we are going to be forced to fix this Facebook overload and cure the entire world of FAD. One can only hope.

References:

http://socialtimes.com/facebook-addiction-disorder-the-6-symptoms-of-f-a-d_b60403
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rSnXE2791yg
http://www.voiceable.org/parents-worst-facebook-nightmare.html

Gül Didem Bağcı

2-C

101011825





external image minimoy-dekoratif-f-harfi.jpgight Club is an American film which was directed by David Fincher in 1999. The film is based on the 1996 novel of the same name by Chuck Palahniuk. The soundtrack of the film was produced by Dust Brothers. Edward Norton, Brad Pitt, and Helena Bonham Carter are stars of the film. In the film Edward Norton plays the unnamed protagonist, an ‘‘everyman’’ who is discontent with his white-collar-job. With the soap maker Tyler Durden, starred by Brad Pitt, he forms an underground ‘fight club’ and he becomes embroiled in a relationship with him and a dissolute woman, Marla Singer, starred by Bonham Carter. Through the end, Fight club, formed by unnamed protagonist, transforms into a violent revolution.
Laura Ziskin, the producer of the 20th Century Fox, optioned Palahniuk’s novel and hired Jim Uhls to write the film adaptation. Due to Ziskin’s enthusiasm for the film, he hired David Fincher as a director of the film. He was chosen between four-considered directors. The script was developed by Fincher and Uhls. The director, Fincher, looked for screenwriting advice from the cast and others in the film industry. Then, Fincher intended Fight Club’s violence to serve as a metaphor. He decided to use this violence metaphor for the conflict between a generation of young people and the value system of advertising. In order to make audiences more uncomfortable and keep them from anticipating the twist ending, Fincher copied the homoerotic overtones from Palahniuk’s Novel.
Because of a great deal of anticipated losses, studio executive, who did not like the film, reformed Fincher's intended marketing campaign. When it was released, Fight Club failed to meet the studio's expectations at the box office. It received polarized reactions from critics. It was cited as one of the most controversial and talked-about films of 1999. Nonetheless; with its DVD release, the film later found commercial success, which established Fight Club as a cult film. Critical reception of Fight Club has since become more positive.

external image 20111011172239-47493960.jpg

Director:
David Fincher
Writers:
Chuck Palahniuk (novel), Jim Uhls (Screenplay)
Actor roles:
Edward Norton/ the Narrator
Brad Pitt/ Tyler Durden
Helena Bonham Carter/ Marla Singer

Official® Trailer:




REFERENCES
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fight_Club
http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0137523/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QhOGzky7V4k

Aslı AKYÜZ 2/B 101011821









Folk

People share a common culture , customs, beliefs, cuisine, music, dance background . Folk musics and folk dances are the most effective means of national feelings and culture.

Folk dance is a form of dance developed by a group of people that reflects the traditional life of the people of a certain country or region. Folk dancing originated in the 18th century to distinguish dance forms of common people from those of the upper classes. The steps of folk dances are passed through generations, rarely being changed. Folk dancing is usually associated with social activities, although some folk dances are performed competitively. It is seen generally in rural areas.

Folk dance groups participate in competititons , festivals, celebrations.Folk dancers performance in front of audience.

Our folk dances, spread over all of these regions, have very rich figures and melody structure and they are in general, classified into woman dances, man dances, woman/man dances, one person dances, two people dances and group dances

Turkey has a complıcated , magnificient , rich culture. Folk dance affected from events throughout history. Each region of Turkey has different dance styles, costumes, music.
These are:


  • Halay (East of Anatolia)
This dance performed side-by-side, hand, shoulder and arm-in-arm. The principal instruments of our bar dances are davul and zurna.
.external image a63-buyuk.gif


  • Horon( Black Sea regıon)
The Horon suggests the action of fishermen as well as the movements of the fish and the sea of this ancient fishing district. Sudden shivering movements are performed at the round. Its instument is kemençe , tulum.

  • Zeybek (the Western Anatolia)
Colorfully dressed male dancers, called "Efe", symbolize courage and heroism.

external image zeybekatolyesi.jpg

  • Karşılama
It ıs a type of folk dances with melodic and rhythmic structure and with a fast performance facing one another and different cultural structure of the region .




Referances

folk

www.halkoyunlarim.com/.../7720-**folklor**-**nedir**-amaci-**nedir**.html7


NECLA ÇELİK
2/A 101010019

Fast_Five_001.jpg


CAST

Vin Diesel as Dominic Toretto


A professional criminal, street racer and fugitive. Diesel was reportedly paid $15 million to star in and produce the film.

Paul Walker as Brian O'Conner


A former FBI agent turned criminal. He is in a relationship with Mia Toretto. Walker did many of his own stunts for the film, training with parkour professional Paul Darnell to improve his movement.

Dwayne Johnson as Luke Hobbs


A Diplomatic Security Service agent. According to producer Vin Diesel, the role of Hobbs was originally developed with Tommy Lee Jones in mind. However, when reading feedback on his Facebook page, Diesel noted a fan stating a desire to see Diesel and Johnson in a film together. Diesel and Lin then redesigned the role for Johnson. Johnson wanted to work with Universal Studios, citing their support for him during his transition from wrestling to acting. He described the role as a former bounty hunter turned US Marshal and as "the government’s version of the best bounty hunter on the planet". He undertook an extensive daily workout regime to enlarge his physique, wanting his character to appear as a "hunter" and to be formidable enough to present a credible threat to the protagonists.

Jordana Brewster as Mia Toretto


Dominic's sister and the girlfriend of Brian O'Conner.

Tyrese Gibson as Roman Pearce


Brian's childhood friend. Gibson's involvement was confirmed on June 30, 2010, reprising his role from 2 Fast 2 Furious.[16] Gibson was committed to Transformers: Dark of the Moon at the time he signed on to Fast Five. He was forced to fly between Puerto Rico and Atlanta to accommodate both films.[17]

Chris "Ludacris" Bridges as Tej Parker


Brian's and Roman's friend from Miami. Ludacris confirmed his involvement in the film on July 12, 2010, when he stated he had arrived in Puerto Rico to begin filming.

Matt Schulze as Vince


Dominic's childhood friend. Schulze had appeared in the first film, and it was confirmed on July 16, 2010, that he would be returning.

Sung Kang as Han Seoul-Oh


A street racer and Dominic's business partner in the Dominican Republic.

Gal Gadot as Gisele Yashar


A former Mossad agent and love interest of Han. Although Gadot had prior experience handling motorbikes, she was required to learn how to ride the larger, more powerful Ducati Streetfighter for the film.

Joaquim de Almeida as Hernan Reyes


A ruthless drug lord posing as a legitimate business man. It was confirmed on July 16, 2010, that Almeida would play antagonist Hernan Reyes. Having previously played several antagonists, he hesitated to take this role, but accepted it after speaking with Lin and hearing his take on the character.

Elsa Pataky as Elena Neves


A Rio police officer who works with Hobbs' team and becomes Dominic's love interest. It was confirmed on July 16, 2010, that Pataky would take this role. She underwent several days of tactical training with a police/military technical advisor and was required to learn how to handle her gun in a variety of situations to portray Elena believably.

STORYLINE


When Dominic "Dom" Toretto (Vin Diesel) is being transported to Lompoc prison by bus, his sister Mia Toretto (Jordana Brewster) and friend Brian O'Conner (Paul Walker) lead an assault on the bus, causing it to crash and freeing Dom. While the authorities search for them, the trio escape to Rio de Janeiro. Awaiting Dom's arrival, Mia and Brian join their friend Vince (Matt Schulze) and other participants on a job to steal three cars from a train. Brian and Mia discover that agents from the U.S. Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) are also on the train and that the cars are seized property. When Dom arrives with the rest of the participants, he realizes that one of them, Zizi (Michael Irby), is only interested in stealing one car, a Ford GT40. Dom has Mia steal the car herself while he and Brian fight Zizi and his henchmen, during which Zizi kills the DEA agents assigned to the vehicles. Dom and Brian are captured and brought to crime lord Hernan Reyes (Joaquim de Almeida), the owner of the cars and Zizi's boss. Reyes orders the pair be interrogated to discover the location of the car, but they manage to escape and retreat to their safehouse.

While Brian, Dom, and Mia examine the car to discover its importance, Vince arrives and is caught trying to remove a computer chip from it. He admits he was planning to sell the chip to Reyes on his own, and Dom forces him to leave. Brian investigates the chip and discovers it contains details of Reyes' criminal empire, including the locations of US$100 million in cash.

Following the murder of the DEA agents aboard the train, blamed on Dom and his team, DSS agent Luke Hobbs (Dwayne Johnson) and his team arrive in Rio to arrest Dom and Brian. With the help of local officer Elena Neves (Elsa Pataky), they travel to Dom's safehouse, but find it under assault by Reyes' men. Brian, Dom and Mia escape, and Dom suggests they split up and leave Rio, but Mia announces she is pregnant with Brian's child. Dom agrees to stick together and suggests they steal Reyes' money to start a new life. The trio organizes a team to perform the heist, recruiting Han Seoul-Oh (Sung Kang), Roman Pearce (Tyrese Gibson), Tej Parker (Ludacris), Gisele Yashar (Gal Gadot), Leo (Tego Calderón) and Santos (Don Omar). Vince later joins the team after saving Mia from being captured by Reyes' men, earning Dom's trust once more.

Hobbs and his team eventually find and arrest Dom, Mia, Brian and Vince. While transporting them to the airport for extradition to the United States, the convoy is attacked by Reyes' men, who kill Hobbs' team. Hobbs and Elena are saved by Dom, Brian, Mia and Vince as they fight back against Reyes' men and escape, but Vince is shot in the process and dies. Wanting to avenge his murdered team, Hobbs and Elena agree to help with the heist. The gang breaks into the police station where Reyes' money is kept and tear the vault from the building using their cars, dragging it through the city with police in pursuit. Believing they cannot outrun the police, Dom makes Brian continue without him while he attacks the police and the pursuing Reyes, using the vault attached to his car to smash their vehicles. Brian returns to kill Zizi, while Reyes is badly injured by Dom's assault. Hobbs arrives on the scene and kills Reyes. Hobbs refuses to let Dom and Brian go free but, unwilling to arrest them, agrees to give them a 24-hour head start to escape. The gang splits Reyes' money, leaving Vince's share to his family, before the members go their separate ways.

On a tropical beach, Brian and a visibly pregnant Mia relax. They are met by Dom and Elena. Brian challenges Dom to a final, no-stakes race to prove who is the better driver.

In a post-credits scene, Hobbs is given a file by Monica Fuentes (Eva Mendes) concerning the hijack of a military convoy in Berlin. In the file, Hobbs discovers a recent photo of Dom's former girlfriend Letty Ortiz, who had been presumed dead.

TRAILER



Imdb Critics

Official Web Site

Halil İbrahim Keser
2C 101010083


FRIDA KAHLO


Frida Kahlo de Rivera (July 6, 1907 – July 13, 1954; born Magdalena Carmen Frieda Kahlo y Calderón) was a Mexican painter, is perhaps best known for her self-portraits.
Kahlo's life began and ended in Mexico City, in her home known as the Blue House. She gave her birth date as July 7, 1910, but her birth certificate shows July 6, 1907. Kahlo had allegedly wanted the year of her birth to coincide with the year of the beginning of the Mexican Revolution so that her life would begin with the birth of modern Mexico. At the age of six, Frida developed polio, which caused her right leg to appear much thinner than the other. It was to remain that way permanently. Her work has been celebrated in Mexico as emblematic of national and indigenous tradition, and by feminists for its uncompromising depiction of the female experience and form.
Mexican culture and Amerindian cultural tradition are important in her work, which has been sometimes characterized as Naïve art or Folk art. Her work has also been described as "surrealist", and in 1938 André Breton, principal initiator of the surrealist movement, described Kahlo's art as a "ribbon around a bomb".
Kahlo had a volatile marriage with the famous Mexican artist Diego Rivera . She suffered lifelong health problems, many of which derived from a traffic accident she experienced as a teenager. These issues are represented in her works, many of which are self-portraits of one sort or another. Kahlo suggested, "I paint myself because I am so often alone and because I am the subject I know best." She also stated, "I was born a bitch. I was born a painter."

After the accident, Kahlo neglected the study of medicine to begin a painting career. She painted to occupy her time during her temporary immobilization. Her self-portraits became a dominant part of her life when she was immobile for three months after her accident. Kahlo once said, "I paint myself because I am so often alone and because I am the subject I know best."[9]
Her mother had a special easel made for her so she could paint in bed, and her father lent her his box of oil paints and some brushes.
external image 11449_frida_kahlo_in_a_hospital_bed_drawing_her_corset_with_help_of_a_mirror_1951_collection_galeria_lopez_quirog_juan_guzman_.jpgexternal image frida_kahlo_2.jpg
Drawn from personal experiences, including her marriage, her miscarriges, and her numerous operations, Kahlo's works are often characterized by their suggestions of pain.
Of her 143 paintings, 55 are self-portraits which often incorporate symbolic portrayals of physical and psychological wounds. She insisted, "I never painted dreams. I painted my own reality."
Diego Rivera had a great influence on Frida’s painting style. Frida had always admired Diego and his work. She first approached Diego in the Public Ministry of Education, where he had been working on a mural in 1927. She showed him four of her paintings, and asked whether he considered her gifted. Diego was impressed and said, “You got talent.” After that, he became a frequent welcomed guest at Frida’s house. He gave her many insights about her artwork while still leaving her space to explore herself. There is no doubt that the positive and enouraging comments made by Diego strengthened Frida’s wish to pursue a career as an artist.

Active communists, Kahlo and Rivera befriended Leon Trotsky after he received political asylum in Mexico from Joseph Stalin's regime in the Soviet Union during the late 1930s. During 1937, Trotsky lived initially with Rivera and then at Kahlo's home (where he had an affair with Kahlo). Trotsky and his wife then relocated to another house in Coyoacan where, in 1940, he was assassinated.
Frida Kahlo died on July 13, 1954, soon after turning 47. A few days before her death she wrote in her diary: "I hope the exit is joyful — and I hope never to return — Frida". The official cause of death was given as a pulmonary embolism, although some suspected that she died from an overdose that may or may not have been accidental. An autopsy was never performed. She had been very ill throughout the previous year and her right leg had been amputated at the knee, owing to gangrene. She had about that time, which had left her quite frail.
In his autobiography, Diego Rivera would write that the day Kahlo died was the most tragic day of his life, adding that, too late, he had realized that the most wonderful part of his life had been his love for her.


REFERENCES

en.wikipedia.org

www.youtube.com

SEREN KOTAN
2-D 101010100




FF.jpgRIEDRICH NIETZSCHE


It was a propitious day: October 15, 1844. As if the family blood line could no longer endure another pastor, Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche, the firstborn son of Carl Ludwig Nietzsche and Franziska Oehler, was at last born; it was in the presbytery of Röcken, a region of Saxony annexed by Prussia. When Friedrich was baptized on the 24th of October, his father read aloud from Luke 1:66: “Everyone who heard this wondered about it, asking, ‘What then is this child going to be?’ For the Lord’s hand was with him.” The church bells surely rang out in honor of him, though they could not know whom they were honoring . . .
Friedrich-Nietzsche-e1292140420724.jpg
It seems fittingly paradoxical that the man who would announce the death of God, and later refer to himself as the anti-Christ and pose as Dionysus in opposition to the Crucified, would come forth from a lineage of devout believers. The church, in a sense, gave birth to its fiercest opponent and one of the most influential and dynamic philosophers of the modern age. “The Protestant pastor is the grandfather of German philosophy . . .” (The Antichrist, s. 10). On Nietzsche's father's side, the men had been pastors since the early 17th century, and only one born of such a spiritual lineage would have the coruscating insight which Nietzsche had into the nature of religion; even several men on the maternal side of the family were pastors, too. In 1849, when Nietzsche was but five, his father died of softening of the brain (encephalitis or apoplexy).

Speculations have been made that he had syphilis, which the philosopher may have acquired congenitally, or later in a brothel, while other scholars dispute this claim. The loss of his father in his youth and his own physical sufferings, whatever their origin, would have an effect on the development of his philosophy and the manner in which he endured suffering, loss, and death. Shortly after this death, his younger brother died, leaving him and his sister Elisabeth as the sole children of the family.

In his youth, aside from the expected religious instruction, Nietzsche began studying Latin, Greek, German literature, and classical works at Pforta. He composed music and poetry, and wrote essays on philology and literature for Germania. During this time, he developed a passion for writing, a mode of self-discipline, a fervor for music, and while suffering from severe if not excruciating headaches and vision problems (he had been diagnosed with myopia of varying grades and aniscoria when he was only four years of age), struggled for self-mastery while learning to overcome many deaths (in his youth, his Aunt Auguste and his grandmother, Erdmuthe, both of whom lived with the family, died). Hölderlin, who was not well-known or revered at the time, was one of Nietzsche's favorite poets (Byron was another); he had written on essay on him, revealing even in his youth a certain iconoclasm; his professor found this essay disconcerting, and encouraged the young Nietzsche to develop interest in less fevered and saner writers. Paul Deussen, who later became a renown scholar of Sanskrit and with whom it is probable Nietzsche frequently discussed Buddhism, was one of Nietzsche's few close friends during this period. Deussen was also the son of a pastor, and as Nietzsche, expected to follow in the footsteps of his father; however, though they were confirmed together in March of 1861, they had more of an enthusiasm for ancient Greece and poets such as Anacreon.

While engaged at Pforta, Nietzsche, along with his friends Wilhelm Pinder and Gustav Krug, formed Germania, a club devoted to poetry, music, and scholarship. During their monthly meetings, they would each contribute a work. Nietzsche's early contributions concerned music and later poetry, and it was here where he would have the first audience for his thoughts. In the meantime, Nietzsche's headaches and eye condition intensified, and beginning roughly in the spring of 1862, a spiritual crisis erupted due to religious doubts. In a later letter to his sister Elisabeth, Nietzsche remarked, “If you wish to strive for peace of soul and pleasure, then believe; if you wish to be a devotee of truth, then inquire” (June 11, 1865). Nietzsche later claimed that while at Pforta he ceased to utter the blessing at meals (in spring of 1865 he chose to forgo attending church services) and was seriously considering a musical career, as his passion for music remained a primary force. In 1864, he would leave Pforta, his last literary act there being an essay on the Greek poet Theognis; by this time, Nietzsche chose to become a philologist.
Speculations have been made that he had syphilis, which the philosopher may have acquired congenitally, or later in a brothel, while other scholars dispute this claim. The loss of his father in his youth and his own physical sufferings, whatever their origin, would have an effect on the development of his philosophy and the manner in which he endured suffering, loss, and death. Shortly after this death, his younger brother died, leaving him and his sister Elisabeth as the sole children of the family.

In his youth, aside from the expected religious instruction, Nietzsche began studying Latin, Greek, German literature, and classical works at Pforta. He composed music and poetry, and wrote essays on philology and literature for Germania. During this time, he developed a passion for writing, a mode of self-discipline, a fervor for music, and while suffering from severe if not excruciating headaches and vision problems (he had been diagnosed with myopia of varying grades and aniscoria when he was only four years of age), struggled for self-mastery while learning to overcome many deaths (in his youth, his Aunt Auguste and his grandmother, Erdmuthe, both of whom lived with the family, died). Hölderlin, who was not well-known or revered at the time, was one of Nietzsche's favorite poets (Byron was another); he had written on essay on him, revealing even in his youth a certain iconoclasm; his professor found this essay disconcerting, and encouraged the young Nietzsche to develop interest in less fevered and saner writers. Paul Deussen, who later became a renown scholar of Sanskrit and with whom it is probable Nietzsche frequently discussed Buddhism, was one of Nietzsche's few close friends during this period. Deussen was also the son of a pastor, and as Nietzsche, expected to follow in the footsteps of his father; however, though they were confirmed together in March of 1861, they had more of an enthusiasm for ancient Greece and poets such as Anacreon.

While engaged at Pforta, Nietzsche, along with his friends Wilhelm Pinder and Gustav Krug, formed Germania, a club devoted to poetry, music, and scholarship. During their monthly meetings, they would each contribute a work. Nietzsche's early contributions concerned music and later poetry, and it was here where he would have the first audience for his thoughts. In the meantime, Nietzsche's headaches and eye condition intensified, and beginning roughly in the spring of 1862, a spiritual crisis erupted due to religious doubts. In a later letter to his sister Elisabeth, Nietzsche remarked, “If you wish to strive for peace of soul and pleasure, then believe; if you wish to be a devotee of truth, then inquire” (June 11, 1865). Nietzsche later claimed that while at Pforta he ceased to utter the blessing at meals (in spring of 1865 he chose to forgo attending church services) and was seriously considering a musical career, as his passion for music remained a primary force. In 1864, he would leave Pforta, his last literary act there being an essay on the Greek poet Theognis; by this time, Nietzsche chose to become a philologist.


The legendary Cologne brothel episode dates from this period, which many find to be proof for Nietzsche’s contraction of syphilis. Nietzsche, who claimed he was dumbstruck before the women (a street porter brought him there mistakenly after Nietzsche asked to be taken to ‘interesting sights’), thought only the piano had any spirit, and approaching it, struck a few improvisatory chords, which freed him from his paralysis, and left the establishment at once. Some might expect the “disciple of Dionysis” to have freely indulged himself, but that perhaps is a distorted view of the Dionysian philosopher for whom self-mastery is just as vital. At the year’s end, he left Bonn for Leipzig, a move encouraged by Ritschl’s own move to Leipzig University.


In Leipzig, Nietzsche continued his work on Theognis, worked closely with Ritschl, and was part of a student philological club initiated by Ritschl. Nietzsche worked closely on Aeschylus’ texts, wrote an essay on Diogenes Laertius, and many other articles and reviews which make up the Philologica. During the Leipzig years, Nietzsche's first, or major philosophical awakening came with his discovery of Schopenhauer, whose philosophy would present entire new perspectives of viewing the world and leave him with many striking questions. He read The World as Will and Representation carefully and enthusiastically, internally debating with the philosopher while blending his knowledge of classical literature with his own lived experiences of philosophical issues; Erwin Rohde, a colleague and friend of Nietzsche's, also shared his enthusiasm for Schopenhauer. Another significant influence on Nietzsche's philosophical evolution during this period was F.A. Lange’s History of Materialism(1866), and in the midst of these intellectual developments, Nietzsche began to consider teaching, encouraged by the encomiums of his professors, who said he had great pedagogical talents. Moreover, he was making efforts to improve his prose style and, under the influence of Lichtenberg and Schopenhauer, began to write aphorisms.


In 1867, Nietzsche was compelled to join the Prussian Army, interrupting his philological work for one year. During his time in the military, he injured himself while mounting a horse and was eventually declared ‘unfit for service’ and released from further duties. Nietzsche became familiar with Kantian philosophy while in the army through Kuno Fischer, a neo-Kantian. He started writing a philosophical essay, “Teleology since Kant,” which he thought would be his doctoral dissertation, but this project did not materialize. Shortly after his return to Leipzig, he gave a lecture to the philological society, but his loyalty was suddenly split between philology and philosophy. In this last year in Leipzig, two great events took place in Nietzsche's life. In the beginning of the academic year, he met and became friends with Richard Wagner, whose works he had been familiar with. And in the beginning of 1869 Nietzsche was chosen to be Professor Extraordinarius at Basel University through the influence image003.jpg





In his youth, Nietzsche had aspired to be a musician prior to taking up the path of philology; he composed lieder and solo piano works, but did not develop his musical talent as would a professional musician. Thus to meet Wagner, one of the eminent cultural figures of his time, was an exhilarating experience; two weeks prior to his first encounter with Wagner in Leipzig in November of 1868, Nietzsche, who had been familiar with the composer’s music since his youth, said that in particular the Overture to Die Meistersinger and the Prelude to Tristan created and sustained in him “the feeling of being carried away.” Wagner was also the same age as Nietzsche’s long deceased father, to whom the musician bore a striking resemblance; they also shared common interest in Schopenhauer, whom Wagner said was the only philosopher who understood the essence of music. Wagner also wrote works on art, religion, and politics, and their mutual interest in Greek tragedy led to many fruitful discussions on the significance of art and its place in life. These would have a great impact on Nietzsche’s first book. However, their relationship, which started so amicably, would end in a rupture due to artistic, philosophical, and personal conflicts and differences.


On April 13, 1869, Nietzsche left Naumburg for Basel and renounced his German citizenship. Though he lived in Switzerland for some time, residency requirements kept Nietzsche from actually becoming a Swiss citizen, thus he remained stateless, living the very life of one separate from state, nation, and politics as he exemplified in his philosophy. It was not only spiritually but also
physically that he would and always be a “Good European.”

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While engaged as a professor (he would remain an ‘academic’ for but ten years), Nietzsche presented his inaugural lecture, which was on “Homer and Classical Philology.” During his time there, he taught classical Greek, continued to present public lectures, engaged in dialogue with colleagues and met frequently with Wagner and his wife Cosima, who lived not far from him at Tribschen, which he referred to as the “Isle of the Blessed.” Nietzsche also met Jacob Burckhardt, the well-known historian of culture, who taught history of ancient Greek culture at Basel (his work was published posthumously as Die Griechische Kulturgeschichte). Burckhardt had the keen sense of a historian and an astute understanding of the inner dynamics of ancient cultures, and this complemented Nietzsche's attempt at an interpretation of ancient Greek civilization. Nietzsche and Burckhardt attended each other’s lectures and had long discussions on Greek culture, which also surely influenced Nietzsche’s first work. While at Basel, Nietzsche also befriended Franz Overbeck, the Christian theologian, and Heinrich Köselitz, a student of Nietzsche's, who later became an opera composer under the pseudonym Peter Gast. He functioned as Nietzsche’s amanuensis, editing his writings and proofreading galleys; towards the end of Nietzsche’s life, it was said that Gast was the only person capable of deciphering the philosopher’s hand-writing. During his time as a professor, Nietzsche taught Greek tragedies, Greek poetry, and Plato and the pre-Platonic philosophers. In the meantime, he was working towards a major publication and writing essays to that end; these essays would later form the bulk of Nietzsche's first book,The Birth Of Tragedia, whose original title wasUrsprung und Ziel der Tragödie [Origin and Goal of Tragedy], published in 1871.

REFERENCES
http://www.nietzschecircle.com/nietzsche_work.html


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