external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRIQg4FOKC2VGqh6xUjKBpDLWNlWD-R8MwArKp5yt_bZ1jM3gtiTQINEN PLANT

One of the world's oldest fabrics, linen is woven from the fibres of the flax plant and is a completely natural resource – perhaps the most ecologically sound fabric of all.

Whilst only the very best fibres are used by the Linen industry, no part of the flax plant is wasted; the left over linseeds, oil, straw and fibre are used in everything from lino and soap to cattlefeed and paper. Few products are so efficiently used as flax.

The production of linen fabric uses five to twenty times less water and energy than the production of cotton or other synthetic fabrics. Linen fabrics are biodegradable and recyclable.

Linen is available in different qualities varying from almost silk-like to sack-linen. Linen is usually white to ivory,may be washed at 95 deg C and should be ironed when damp. When being washed the first time, linen shrinks,as is the case with most natural fibres.

Due to its one-time common use to make fine fabric, "linens" became the generic term for sheets and pillowcases, although these are now often made of cotton or synthetic fibres.

The characteristic most often associated with linen yarn is the presence of "slubs", or small knots that occur randomly along its length. However, these are actually defects associated with low quality. The finest linen has a very consistent diameter with no slubs.

The standard measure of bulk linen yarn is the lea. A yarn having a size of 1 lea will give 300 yards per pound. The fine yarns used in handkerchiefs, etc. ,might be 40 lea, and give 40 x 300 = 12000 yards per pound.

Paper for the US dollar is 25% linen and 75% cotton. It is specially made for the Bureau of Engraving and Printing and possession of the blank paper by outsiders is a federal crime.



external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQvG6cjhJZ9PceeONrKQFaAuZA64kD5WaHRMNnlmGlh6LPAMC-3fw external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTUpt4I2mST4DRTH1GWOZc1U32qtCNwf6qGU_bPj5HYsTCTEZbEtA

The word linen is derived from the Latin for the flax plant, which is linum, and the earlier Greek linon.

Linen is one of the world's oldest fabrics. Mummies have been found wrapped in linen shrouds dating as far back as 4500 B.C.

Flax yarns and fabrics increase about 20% in strength on wetting. Linen is also therefore stronger when being washed, resulting in greater longevity than, for example, cotton.

Over time linen textiles become softer and actually improves in comfort.

When linen fabrics are in contact with the skin, the nodes along the length of the fibre absorb perspiration, then swell and release the moisture to the outside air, thus creating a fabric self cooled by evaporation. As a result linen is a popular choice for bedding particularly in hot climates.

Linen is highly hygroscopic as it is capable to rapidly absorb and yield moisture. It evaporates water as quickly as the pond surface. Linen can absorb up to 20% of its own weight in moisture while still feeling dry to the touch. That explains why linen cloth always feels fresh and cool

Linen is virtually lint free, non-static, non-allergenic, naturally insect-repellent and gives UV protection.
Pure linen damask is the name given to products woven from pure flax yarns in a special manner so that patterns are visible even in an all white cloth.

Linen is woven from the fibres of the flax plant and is a completely natural product. Linen fibre is totally biodegradable and recyclable..

Linen is renowned for its spectacular durability and long life. The tensile strength of linen thread is twice as high as that of cotton and three times that of wool;
The Flax cell is highly compatible with the human cell thereby producing benevolent effects on the human organism.

external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQyNxwUh3GRBxjboiXpu7FFBWnzgSWVl-nsBm8hvWtx5JbpqNcQqA external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS8pA6B5FT5XgfS9b_j3HVbZGScV6GIYuNOU3FIU5Ry99qB3cTt


  • Flax fabric is an excellent filter protecting against a chemically aggressive medium, noise and dust;

  • Linen reduces gamma radiation nearly by half and protects the human organism against solar radiation. Flax fibre from contaminated soils appears not to exhibit even small traces of radiation;

  • Linen underwear possesses rare bacteriological properties. Resistant to fungus and bacteria, it is found to be an effective barrier to some diseases.

  • According to medical studies conducted in Japan, bed-ridden patients do not develop bedsores where linen bed sheets are used. Wearing linen clothes helps to get rid of some skin diseases - from common rash to chronic eczemas;

  • Linen does not cause allergic reactions and is helpful in treating a number of allergic disorders;

  • Linen is effective in dealing with inflammatory conditions, reducing fever and regulating air ventilation, and is also helpful in the treatment of some neurological ailments;

  • Linen cloth does not accumulate static electricity - even a small blend of flax fibres (up to 10%) to a cloth is enough to eliminate the static electricity effect;

  • Linen possesses high air permeability and heat conductivity properties. Heat conductivity of linen is five times as high as that of wool and 19 times as that of silk. In hot weather those dressed in linen clothes are found to show the skin temperature 3°-4°C below that of their silk or cotton-wearing friends. According to some studies, a person wearing linen clothes perspires 1.5 times less than when dressed in cotton clothes and twice less than when dressed in viscose clothes. Meanwhile in cold weather linen is an ideal warmth-keeper;

  • Silica present in the flax fibre protects linen against rotting - the mummies of Egyptian Pharaohs preserved to the present day are wrapped in the finest linen cloth;

  • For more information, visit the Wikipedia linen pages.





REFERENCES:
http://www.purelinen.com.au/Linen-Facts/default.shtml

http://www.kwintessential.co.uk/articles/egypt/Egyptian-Linen-Plant/3227

NURULLAH ÜNLÜ
2-A 101010028



external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRIQg4FOKC2VGqh6xUjKBpDLWNlWD-R8MwArKp5yt_bZ1jM3gtiTQOTUS FLOWER


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The Lotus flower has special meaning to many cultures around the world.
The meaning of a lotus flower changes to culture from culture.While it means
divine purity and enlightenment
in Buddhism, it means wealth in Hinduism
Also,surrounded by myths and legends, lotus is looked upon as a symbol of divine beauty.







Traditional classification systems recognized Nelumbo as part of the Nymphaeaceae (water lily) family
Lotus flowers emerge from the dirty and murky bottom of a pond, and yet remain untouched by all the dirt and mud of the environment, in which it grows.

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Lotus Flowers In Ancient Egyptexternal image Blue-Lotus-Nebsini.jpg




In ancient Egypt there were two main types of lotus that grew, the white and the blue. Further to this another type, the pink lotus flower was introduced into Egypt sometime during the late period of their civilization.This plant is known to be associated with rebirth. This is a consequence of it supposedly retracting into the water at the night, and emerging a fresh in the Sun the next day.Also, Lotus Flowers feature in creation legends.In one creation legend, the sun rose out of a lotus.The other legend,a lotus rose along with dirt mound.The lotus bloomed revealing the sun-god Atum.



Lotus Flowers meaning in Buddhism


In Buddhism the lotus flower is known to be associated with purity, spiritual awakening and faithfulness. The flower is considered pure as it is able to emerge from murky waters in the morning and be perfectly clean.Different colors of lotus are symbolically used to represent aspects of perfection. There are four colors, which are pink, blue, red and white. Red represents the heart--its purity, original nature, compassion, passion, love and other qualities. White symbolizes spiritual perfection and complete mental purity. Pink represents the Buddha and is the supreme lotus. Blue means wisdom, knowledge and victory over the senses.



The lotus flowers in Hinduismexternal image 200377690-001_XS.jpgLotuses in Hinduism symbolize prosperity, beauty, fertility, eternity and eternal youth.The most common form seen in Hinduism is the white lotus flower. Many of the gods and goddesses of Hinduism are linked to the flower.As a lotus is able to emerge from Muddy Waters unspoilt and pure it is considered to represent a wise and spiritually enlightened quality in a person.











References

http://www.lotusflowermeaning.net/
http://www.ehow.com/about_4762657_meaning-lotus-flowers.html#page=0
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZZKP6ZiI66k&feature=related

Nurefşan Karakaş

2/C


external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRIQg4FOKC2VGqh6xUjKBpDLWNlWD-R8MwArKp5yt_bZ1jM3gtiTQARA CROFT


external image tr7_lara_pistols.jpg
Lara Croft is a fictional character of a video game: Tomb Raider. She's the lead character of the game. She's a British adventurer/archeologist who travels around the world and fights for artifacts. She's shown as a very strong, brave, beautiful and intelligent woman who can use any type of gun, is very athletic and never scared of anything. She first appeared in the 1996 video game Tomb Raider. She has also appeared in video game sequels, printed adaptations, a series of animated short films, feature films (portrayed by Angelina Jolie) and merchandise related to the series.


external image tomb-raider-anniversary_117583.jpg
- She has brown eyes and brown pony-tailed hair.
- Her classic costume is a turquoise sleeveless tank top, light brown shorts, calf-high boots, and long white socks. (as you can see on the left)
- She also has fingerless gloves, a backpack, a utility belt with holsters on either side, and two pistols.
- The video game series introduced new outfits designed for different environments, such as underwater and cold weather.
- In the later games, Croft wears a crop top, camouflage pants and black or light brown shirts.
- When exploring, she often carries two pistols, but has used other weaponry throughout the series.
- Lara Croft is fluent in several languages.




external image lara-croft-tomb-raider-legend_1376.jpg

Lara Croft's 1996 debut is often cited as a catalyst for more female leads in video games. IGN argued that Croft helped redefine gender in video games by providing a different interpretation of what women could do. Thus, the reason she's one of the most famous video game heroines is that she showed the "female power" to the world and has influenced many girls to be brave like her. While games like that are mostly played by boys, Tomb Raider has both male and female fans because male fans like adventure, action, guns and beautiful women whilst female fans like the idea of a young, strong woman who's as brave as a man, or even more and take her as a role model.
She's still an inspiration to many people and nowadays, her fans are really excited because a new Tomb Raider game will be released next year.



To see her moving, you can watch the video below. This is the opening theme of the 7th game of the series, Tomb Raider Legend.


References:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lara_Croft

http://youtube.com

http://officialtombraiderblog.tumblr.com

http://laracroft.wikia.com/wiki/Lara_Croft

Meryem YAVUZ

2/A 101010009



LANGUAGE LEARNING PROCESS
To learn a language, you have to take responsibility and do something by yourself. You have to be connected with the language and this will improve your skills day by day. You have to read whatever you find or you have to watch programs in your foreign language because these are some of the most important things for you to get used to the language. The main steps in the process of language learning is taking responsibility, spending hours as long as possible, listening and reading a lot, building up vocabulary and phrases and using the language without hesitation.
First step is taking control. If you want to learn a language, you have to control the process. No one can know what the most suitable way for you is, so you have to take your own responsibility and learn the language with the way you choose. You can not find somebody to show you what to do every time, so you have to discover the language alone. The process must be under your control and you have to decide when you are going to listen or which words you need to memorize. Then you have to follow other steps.
At the starting of the way, the second step is spending long hours with the language. You have to do everything that is related to the language. Sitting in the language class does not enough to learn a language completely so you have to create your own language world and spend your time there. Do not forget that the more time you spend, the sooner you start to use the language effectively. Just be sure that you are face to face with the language more than everything.
Another step is listening and reading. You have to have courage to read whatever you see and to listen whatever you find. Even when you do not understand fully, go on listening or reading and you will notice that you have started to understand. For example, you can listen to music and read songs’ lyrics simultaneously. This will help you understand easily and you can get used to the words. You can read books and if you do not understand, dictionaries will help you. Sometimes, reading or listening one hour can be more useful than doing anything else.
After these two steps you have to attach importance to vocabulary and phrases. You can notice how words come together and memorize them as phrases. You can learn these words and phrases when you are reading and listening. You can also make vocabulary cards and spend enjoyable hours with them wherever you are. Sticking your vocabulary cards on your room’s walls is another way to build up vocabulary. The more word you know, the easier you express yourself.
As a last step; all you have to do is being relaxed. All parts of the language will be clearer in your mind step by step so do not worry if you do not remember some words or if you do not find the most suitable words for your sentences. Everything will gradually improve and you will suddenly find yourself when you are using the language as if you were a native speaker. Use what you know without hesitation and do not worry about whether or not you use them accurately.
As a conclusion, learning a foreign language is a long process and there are some steps to achieve success. If you follow these steps and if you are not hasty, everything will be under your control and you will reach your goal without difficulty.

PINAR ÖNER
2-C 101010070
external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRIQg4FOKC2VGqh6xUjKBpDLWNlWD-R8MwArKp5yt_bZ1jM3gtiTQimitless is a 2011 thriller film directed by Neil Burger and starring Bradley Cooper, Abbie Cornish, and Robert De Niro. It is based on the 2001 novel The Dark Fields by Alan Glynn with the screenplay by Leslie Dixon. The film was released on March 18, 2011.

Contents

1 Plot

2 Cast

3 Production

This article's plot summary may be too long or excessively detailed. Please help improve it by removing unnecessary details and making it more concise. (November 2011)

Edward "Eddie" Morra (Bradley Cooper) is a writer who lives in New York City. He has recently been dumped by his girlfriend Lindy (Abbie Cornish) in addition to failing to meet the deadline to turn in his new book, which he hasn't started yet. One day, Eddie comes across Vernon Gant (Johnny Whitworth), the brother of his ex-wife, Melissa Gant (Anna Friel). Vernon is a drug dealer, and he offers Eddie a sample of a new (fictional) nootropic drug, NZT-48, claiming it allows humans to access 100% of the brain's power, as opposed to the "normal" . Eddie accepts, and, much to his surprise, the drug does indeed work, putting him into a manic state, and enabling him to write the first 90 pages to his book, exciting his publisher.

Eddie asks for more of the drug, but when Vernon asks him to go pick up his dry cleaning, he returns to find Vernon murdered and his apartment ransacked. Eddie calls the police and deduces that Vernon was probably killed by someone who wanted his stash of NZT. He finds the drugs, his address book, and a wad of cash just before the police arrive. Regularly taking NZT, and using Vernon's cash, he turns his life around. After finishing his book he focuses on trading stocks, initially financed with a $100,000 loan from a Russian mafia thug, Gennady (Andrew Howard). Eddie gets back together with Lindy. He starts increasing his dose of NZT while he turns his loan into more than $2million in just a few days. His success hits the news, but he notices he is followed by a man in a tan coat (Tomas Arana).

His successful trading gets him a meeting with powerful businessman, Carl Van Loon (Robert De Niro). Van Loon gives him an assignment to research overnight, but the higher dose of NZT is causing side effects including lost time, frenetic activity, and hallucinations. Eddie goes on a drinking and partying binge, and ends up in a hotel room with a striking blond (Caroline Winberg). He is followed there by the man in the tan coat.

Eddie wakes up just prior to his meeting with Van Loon, and decides to forgo taking NZT after his experience the night prior. He hasn't looked at the assignment, but goes to the meeting anyway. Van Loon wants to force a merger with a competitor, Hank Atwood (Richard Bekins), and can't figure out how the head of the merger target could come from out of nowhere to be a viable partner in just 2 years. Just as Eddie begins to realize that Atwood may be on NZT too, a news flash appears on a TV screen showing that the woman Eddie was out with the evening before was murdered.

Melissa explains that the pill makes you very sick, especially if you try to go off it cold turkey. She quit 2 years earlier, and felt she was lucky to be alive, but has lost her ability to concentrate, and has become lazy. She tells him the best way is to ease off gradually, reducing the dosage over time.

Eddie finds a pill in his pocket, and heads home to take it, but is apprehended by the Russian, Gennady, looking for his money. Gennady notices the pill, and takes it. Eddie gets his money from the bank, and the Russian tells him that it makes him feel very good.

Eddie is getting sicker as he goes through withdrawal, and stumbles into Lindy's office. He tells her about the drug, and that he has hidden his stash at her apartment. Seeing how sick he is, she agrees to retrieve his stash and return it to him at her office.

On her way back to Eddie, Lindy is intercepted en route by the man in the tan coat. It becomes obvious that he is dangerous, as he gives chase to Lindy, killing two men trying to help her as she flees. By phone, Eddie convinces her to take a pill as it will enable her to know what to do to survive. Doing so, Lindy makes a bold escape. Though Eddie is saved, Lindy is convinced that he will destroy himself because of NZT and breaks up with him again.

The Russian enforcer realizes the effects the drug has and threatens Eddie until he agrees to give him more NZT. Because of Melissa's warnings, Eddie manages his consumption of the drug down to an acceptable level, and uses his fortune to hire bodyguards, and recruits a scientist to work on reverse engineering NZT. Meanwhile, he reconnects with Van Loon to assist with the merger deal.

While planning the merger, Eddie is told he is a suspect for the murder of the blonde. He hires a top lawyer, Morris Brandt (Ned Eisenberg). Morris tells him that the room was wiped of finger prints, and there is no real evidence against him.

Negotiations on the merger go well, but Eddie notices how frail Atwood is. Van Loon tells Eddie that he will be paid $40 million if the deal closes. Eddie purchases a well-fortified "bunker" penthouse.

At the meeting to close the merger deal, Atwood is late. His wife shows up, and says he would complete the deal, but is in a coma in the hospital. Her chauffeur is the man in the tan coat. He had been looking to get NZT for Atwood, thus confirming how he accomplished his meteoric rise.

Next, Eddie is met by his lawyer, and stands in a lineup for the murder. He is not identified. He had to pass his custom tailored suit jacket to the lawyer while he was in the lineup. When Eddie goes to take another pill, he realizes that the lawyer has lifted his stash of pills that were in a hidden pocket. To make matters worse, Van Loon accuses him of leaking the merger story to the press, and he has the hands of his bodyguards delivered to him in a box while he is meeting with Van Loon. He heads home to his bunker, and while trying to figure out what is going on, he sees Morris Brandt, his lawyer, on the television, acting as Atwood's lawyer.

The Russians break down the door to his apartment, looking for the NZT. Gennady explains that he is no longer ingesting the pills, but instead dissolves them in a solution, and injects them. The effects hit faster, and last longer. While the Russian's associates are searching the apartment, Eddie is able to stab Gennady. He is desperate for a hit as he lays beside the bleeding man. All he can do is drink the blood that is pooling beside him. Revitalized, he stabs one of the thugs in the eye, and tricks him into shooting the other.

Atwood dies at the hospital, Brandt having kept the NZT for himself. Eddie tells the man in the tan coat that Brandt has caused his boss to die, and gets his help retrieving his stolen NZT at Brandt's house.

Twelve months later, Eddie's book has been published (titled Illuminating the Dark Fields, a reference to the novel on which the film is based), and Eddie is running for the United States Senate. In the midst of his campaign, Carl Van Loon approaches Eddie with the revelation that he has bought the company secretly producing NZT and that the backroom lab Eddie was financing has been shut down.

Carl offers him an unlimited supply of NZT (admitting that they both know he is headed for Presidency); however, Eddie must use his political position to push Carl's agenda in return. Eddie refuses, explaining that having had the foresight to have multiple labs working on the NZT, he had improved the drug and reduced the side effects. Eddie says that he tapered off it completely while permanently retaining its mental enhancements.

By touching Van Loon's chest, Eddie tells Carl that he has a serious cardiac problem. Van Loon looks stunned. Eddie lets him know that with his enhanced thinking, he is already 50 moves ahead of Van Loon, having thought of every contingency, which wraps up their relationship.

The movie ends with Eddie meeting Lindy for lunch at a Chinese restaurant, their relationship apparently renewed. When the waiter walks by, Eddie stops him and orders in Chinese. Lindy looks at him, surprised, and Eddie asks (with a mischievous smile), "What?" Whether Eddie is still on the original NZT produced by one of his multiple lab locations, an improved NZT, or has successfully gotten off the drug as he claimed, is left ambiguous. Noticable is that he in this scene has clear blue eyes, earlier only seen when on NZT.

Cast
Bradley Cooper as Edward (Eddie) Morra

Robert De Niro as Carl Van Loon

Abbie Cornish as Lindy

Anna Friel as Melissa Gant

Johnny Whitworth as Vernon Gant

Robert John Burke as Don Pierce

Tomas Arana as the Man in a tan coat

T.V. Carpio as Valerie

Patricia Kalember as Mrs. Atwood

Andrew Howard as Gennady

Ned Eisenberg as Morris Brandt

Production
Limitless is based on the 2001 novel The Dark Fields by Alan Glynn. The film is directed by Neil Burger and is based on a screenplay by Leslie Dixon, who had acquired rights to the source material. Dixon wrote the adapted screenplay for less than her normal cost in exchange for being made one of the film's producers. She and fellow producer Scott Kroopf approached Burger to direct the film, at the time titled The Dark Fields. For Burger, who had written and directed his previous three films, the collaboration was his first foray solely as director. With Universal Pictures developing the project, Shia LaBeouf was announced in April 2008 to be cast as the film's star.

The project eventually moved to development under Relativity Media and Sir Richard Branson's Virgin Produced with Universal distributing through Relativity's Rogue Pictures. By November 2009, actor Bradley Cooper replaced LaBeouf in the starring role. Robert De Niro was cast opposite Cooper by March 2010, and The Dark Fields began filming in Philadelphia the following May. Filming also took place in New York City. For a car chase scene filmed in Puerto Vallarta, filmmakers sought a luxury car. Italian carmaker Maserati provided two Maserati GranTurismo coupes for free in "a guerrilla-style approach" to product placement. By December 2010, The Dark Fields was re-titled Limitless.



http://www.imdb.com/title/tt1219289/combined
Quoted by Wikipedi

Umut YETKIN 2-C 101010072

THE LORD OF THE RINGS


The Lord of the Rings is an epic high fantasy novel written by English philologist and University of Oxford professor J. R. R. Tolkien. The story began as a sequel to Tolkien's earlier, less complex children's fantasy novel The Hobbit (1937), but eventually developed into a much larger work. It was written in stages between 1937 and 1949, much of it during World War II.It is the third best-selling novel ever written, with over 150 million copies sold.The title of the novel refers to the story's main antagonist, the Dark Lord Sauron.who had in an earlier age created the One Ring to rule the other Rings of Power as the ultimate weapon in his campaign to conquer and rule all of Middle-earth. From quiet beginnings in the Shire, a Hobbit land not unlike the English countryside, the story ranges across north-west Middle-earth, following the course of the War of the Ring through the eyes of its characters, notably the hobbits Frodo Baggins, Samwise "Sam" Gamgee, Meriadoc "Merry" Brandybuck and Peregrin "Pippin" Took, but also the hobbits' chief allies and travelling companions: Aragorn, a Human Ranger; Boromir, a man from Gondor; Gimli, a Dwarf warrior; Legolas, an Elven prince; and Gandalf, a Wizard.
The work was initially intended by Tolkien to be one volume of a two-volume set, with the other being The Silmarillion, but this idea was dismissed by his publisher. It was decided for economic reasons to publish The Lord of the Rings as three volumes over the course of a year from 21 July 1954 to October 1955, thus creating the now familiar Lord of the Rings trilogy. The three volumes were entitled The Fellowship of the Ring, The Two Towers, and The Return of the King. Structurally, the novel is divided internally into six books, two per volume, with several appendices of background material included at the end of the third volume. The Lord of the Rings has since been reprinted numerous times and translated into many languages.
Tolkien's work has been the subject of extensive analysis of its themes and origins. Although a major work in itself, the story was only the last movement of a larger epic Tolkien had worked on since 1917, in a process he described as mythopoeia. Influences on this earlier work, and on the story of The Lord of the Rings, include philology, mythology, religion and the author's distaste for the effects ofindustrialization, as well as earlier fantasy works and Tolkien's experiences in World War I.[1] The Lord of the Rings in its turn is considered to have had a great effect on modern fantasy; the impact of Tolkien's works is such that the use of the words "Tolkienian" and "Tolkienesque" has been recorded in the Oxford English Dictionary. The enduring popularity of The Lord of the Rings has led to numerous references in popular culture, the founding of many societies by fans of Tolkien's works, and the publication of many books about Tolkien and his works. The Lord of the Rings has inspired, and continues to inspire, artwork, music, films and television, video games, and subsequent literature. Award-winning adaptations of The Lord of the Rings have been made for radio, theatre, and film.





Quoted by Wikipedi

Cemal Çakıroğlu 2-D 101010112