external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTv3sFCun2UERzFpA6SMa7ysfeYz5mgZT0CaxP_suKATmWgLCKWowruz ceremony in Azerbaijan

This Azerbaijani tradition is one of the most interesting. Novruz is a feast of spring, coming of New Year. Before Novruz Azerbaijanis celebrate a number of previous days saying good bye to the Old year and welcoming the New year. These days are the four pre-holiday Wednesdays: Su Chershenbe (Water Wednesday),Odlu Chershenbe (Fire Wednesday), Torpag Chershenbe (Earth Wednesday) and Akhyr Chershenbe (Last Wednesday). According to the traditional beliefs the water is reborn on the first Wednesday: still waters come to motion; The fire does on the second one, the earth - on the third. On the fourth Wednesday the wind opens tree buds and spring begins.

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Many ceremonies and devotions are dedicated to this day. For example in the evening each family should light the number of torches on their house's roof corresponding to the number of the family members. Everyone should jump over the burning fire saying a kind of a spell. After the fire dies out girls and young men collect the remaining ash and pour it somewhere in the outskirts of the village or a road.

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It means that the hardships of those who have jumped over the fire are destroyed and thrown out far beyond their homes.
In order to find the happy match unmarried girls throw black coins, a sign of bad luck, to a water-filled jug during the daytime and in the evening before sunset they pour this water out together with the coins outside.
On "Akhyr Cheshenbe" before dark there comes the time of fortune telling. Azerbaijani girls and young men sneak to doors of their neighbors and "overheard" their conversation; then on the basis of the first words they have heard they try to tell their fortune and guess if their wishes will come true. On this day many families also tell fortunes using Khafiz book.
Among holiday ceremonies the most important one is the cooking of samani (millet porridge) which is a symbol of nature and human fertility and has a cult value. The ceremony of the cooking of samani is accompanied by ceremonial songs and dances.

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The last day of the old year is considered a special feast by Azerbaijanis. On the holiday eve entire family gather at home. For the head of the family a special mat is laid. He says prayers; no one is allowed to eat without his permission. As soon as the gun shot sounds signaling the beginning of the meal, the mistress brings in milk pilau. If the gate is open on this day it means that the host is at home. If visitors come to the house they are welcomed by the eldest son or the nephew of the host. The guest is then offered rose water for hand washing and invited into the house. The head of the family gives a sign and the tea is immediately served for the guest. Such visits are paid for three days. Then there comes the women's turn to celebrate Novruz for a week.

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On the last night of the old year all family members spray each other with water before going to bed "to wash off" all hardships of the old year.
Finally the holiday starts. Everyone puts on new clothes and begins partying. Nobody works on this day.
Today in Azerbaijan the official celebration of Novruz comes on March 21st. On the first day of the New year it is a tradition to rise early in the morning. If it is possible people go where water is -to a river or a spring: wash themselves, splash water on each other. Water is a symbol of cleanliness and freshness. Right there they treat each other with sweets. On this morning it is obligatory to eat something sweet for example honey or sugar. Then it is necessary to smell a fragrant smoke that is the way of getting rid of "evil spirits".
The holiday table on this day is very special. It is essential on this day to have seven dishes whose names begin with the letter "s". They are sumakh, skad (milk), sirke (vinegar), samani (aspecial millet porridge), sabzi (greens) etc . Except for the listed dishes there should be a mirror, a candle and a painted egg on the table. All these have a symbolical significance: a candle means light or fire protecting a person from evil spirits. An egg and a mirror are necessary to mark the end of the old year and beginning of the first day of the new. Azerbaijanis put the painted egg on the mirror. As soon as the egg moves the New Year begins. Everyone sitting at the table starts wishing a happy new year to each other.
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As a rule during holidays the doors are not locked. It means that the family is home and glad to welcome guests. Children visit their friends and relatives with little bags for holiday presents.
On the first day of the New Year the houses should be lit all night long. Putting the light off is a bad omen.
New Year celebrations are finished on the 13th day of Novruz. On this day in the city outskirts are held mass parties with traditional games and contests like horse or camel races in which both men and women take part. The ancient spring holiday - Novruz bairamy - is one of the oldest and most beautiful Azerbaijani traditions.

Arzu Sediyeva
2-C 101009907

external image 0b11943f726009f54efc792c8c8b3222_1281876048.jpgoam Chomsky

Noam Chomsky was born on December 7, 1928, in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He received his Ph.D. in linguistics from the University of Pennsylvania and began teaching at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1955. Widely published, he’s considered a father of modern linguistics. Chomsky spoke out against U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War and has continued to publically criticize U.S. foreign policy.

Noam Chomsky is an American linguist, philosopher,cognitive scientist, historian, and activist. He is an Institute Professor and Professor (Emeritus) in the Department of Linguistics & Philosophy at MIT, where he has worked for over 50 years.Chomsky has been described as the "father of modern linguistics" and a major figure of analytic philosophy.His work has influenced fields such as computer science, mathematics, and psychology.

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Chomsky, who has taught at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology since 1955, developed a theory of transformational (sometimes called generative or transformational-generative) grammar that revolutionized the scientific study of language. He first set out his abstract analysis of language in his doctoral dissertation (1955) and Syntactic Structures (1957). Instead of starting with minimal sounds, as the structural linguists had done, Chomsky began with the rudimentary or primitive sentence; from this base he developed his argument that innumerable syntactic combinations can be generated by means of a complex series of rules.

According to transformational grammar, every intelligible sentence conforms not only to grammatical rules peculiar to its particular language, but also to “deep structures,” a universal grammar underlying all languages and corresponding to an innate capacity of the human brain. Chomsky and other linguists who built on his work formulated transformational rules, which transform a sentence with a given grammatical structure (e.g., “John saw Mary”) into a sentence with a different grammatical structure but the same essential meaning (“Mary was seen by John”). Transformational linguistics has been influential in psycholinguistics, particularly in the study of language acquisition by children. In the 1990s Chomsky formulated a “Minimalist Program” in an attempt to simplify the symbolic representations of the language facility.

His thoughts about language :

Chomsky was a pioneer in the field of psycholinguistics, which, beginning in the 1950s, helped establish a new relationship between linguistics and psychology. While Chomsky argued that linguistics should be understood as a part of cognitive psychology, in his first book, Syntactic Structures (1957), he opposed the traditional learning theory basis of language acquisition. In doing so, his expressed a view that differed from the behaviorist view of the mind as a tabula rasa; his theories were also diametrically opposed to the verbal learning theory of B. F. Skinner, the foremost proponent of behaviorism. In Chomsky's view, certain aspects of linguistic knowledge and ability are the product of a universal innate ability, or "language acquisition device" (LAD), that enables each normal child to construct a systematic grammar and generate phrases. This theory claims to account for the fact that children acquire language skills more rapidly than other abilities, usually mastering most of the basic rules by the age of four. As evidence that an inherent ability exists to recognize underlying syntactical relationships within a sentence, Chomsky cites the fact that children readily understand transformations of a given sentence into different forms-such as declarative and interrogative-and can easily transform sentences of their own. Applying this principle to adult mastery of language, Chomsky has devised the now-famous nonsense sentence, "Colorless green ideas sleep furiously." Although the sentence has no coherent meaning, English speakers regard it as still more nonsensical if the syntax, as well as the meaning, is deprived of underlying logic, as in "Ideas furiously green colorless sleep." (The same idea underlies Lewis Carroll's well-known poem "Jabberwocky" from his Alice in Wonderland.) Chomsky's approach is also referred to as "generative" because of the idea that rules generate the seemingly infinite variety of orders and sentences existing in all languages. Chomsky argues that the underlying logic, or deep structure , of all languages is the same and that human mastery of it is genetically determined, not learned. Those aspects of language that humans have to study are termed surface structures.

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It is a popular misconception that Chomsky proved that language is entirely innate and discovered a "universal grammar" (UG). In fact, Chomsky simply observed that while a human baby and a kitten are both capable of inductive reasoning, if they are exposed to exactly the same linguistic data, the human child will always acquire the ability to understand and produce language, while the kitten will never acquire either ability. Chomsky labeled whatever the relevant capacity the human has which the cat lacks the "language acquisition device" (LAD) and suggested that one of the tasks for linguistics should be to figure out what the LAD is and what constraints it puts on the range of possible human languages. The universal features that would result from these constraints are often termed "universal grammar" or UG.

Chomsky's ideas have had a strong influence on researchers of the language acquisition in children, though many researchers in this area such as Elizabeth Bates and Michael Tomasello[36] argue very strongly against Chomsky's theories, and instead advocate emergentist or connectionist theories, explaining language with a number of general processing mechanisms in the brain that interact with the extensive and complex social environment in which language is used and learned.

His best-known work in phonology is The Sound Pattern of English (1968), written with Morris Halle (and often known as simply SPE). This work has had a great significance for the development in the field. While phonological theory has since moved beyond "SPE phonology" in many important respects, the SPE system is considered the precursor of some of the most influential phonological theories today, including autosegmental phonology, lexical phonology and optimality theory. Chomsky no longer publishes on phonology.



Büşra Almaz

2/A 101010011

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2A 101009901

Nu, Pogodi! is a Soviet/Russian animated series produced by Soyuzmultfilm. The series was created in 1969 and become a popular cartoon of the Soviet Union. Additional episodes have been produced in Russia since 2006. The original film language is Russian but very little speech is used (usually interjections[1], or at most several sentences per episode).
The series follows the comical adventures of a mischievous[2] yet artistic wolf trying to catch (and presumably[3] eat) a hare. The series has additional characters that usually either help the hare or interfere with wolf’ plans.

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The Wolf commonly translated into English as Volk, is initially portrayed as a hooligan who eagerly turns to vandalism[4], abuses minors, breaks laws, and is a smoker. On the other hand, many of the Wolf’s attempts to catch the Hare are often characterized by uncanny[5] abilities on his part for humorous contrast. The Wolf can also play the guitar very well and ride the powerful rocker motorbike.

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The Hare commomnly translated into English as Zayats, is portrayed as a supposedly positive hero.He gets much less screen time and is less developed than the Wolf, and most of his actions are simply reactions to the Wolf’s schemes.
Number of memorable tunes were written or selected to match the action sequences of the cartoon. The majority of the soundtrack was edited directly from various international louge and dance LP[6] records from the 1960s-1980s, many of which were part of the music supervisors’ personal collections.

The episodes of Nu, Pogodi! were not named but rather numbered. external image nu-pogodi-german-r2-front-cover-17377.jpg
“City and Beach“ June 14, 1969
“Fair ground at Night“ July 18, 1970
“ Road“ May 29, 1971
“Stadium“ June 26, 1971
“City“ September 23, 1972
“Countryside” April 21, 1973 and so on.