external image p1jsjb6.gifhyllobates terribilis, the golden poison frog or the golden dart frog, is a poison dart frog endemic to the Pacific coast of Colombia. The optimal habitat of P. terribilis is the rainforest with high rain rates (5 m or more), altitude between 100–200 m, temperature of at least 26 °C, and relative humidity of 80–90%. In the wild, P. terribilis is a social animal, living in groups of up to six individuals; however, captive P. terribilis can live in much larger groups. Terribilis frogs are often considered innocuous due to their small size and bright colours; however, wild specimens are lethally toxic. This poison dart frog is confirmed to have killed humans who touched the wild frog directly.

Poison

The golden poison frog's skin is densely coated in alkaloidpoison, one of a number of poisons common to dart frogs, which prevents nerves from transmitting impulses, leaving the muscles in an inactive state of contraction. This can lead to heart failure or fibrillation. Alkaloid batrachotoxins can be stored by frogs for years after the frog is deprived of a food-based source, and such toxins do not readily deteriorate, even when transferred to another surface. Chickens and dogs have died from contact with a paper towel on which a frog had walked.

The golden poison frog is not venomous, but poisonous; venomous animals use their toxins to kill their prey. Like most poison dart frogs, P. terribilis uses poison only as a self-defense mechanism and not for killing prey. The most venomous animal is the box jellyfish, which is only slightly less toxic than P. terribilis.





P. terribilis

The average dose carried will vary between locations, and consequent local diet, but the average wild P. terribilis is generally estimated to contain about one milligram of poison, enough to kill about 10,000 mice. This estimate will vary in turn, but most agree this dose is enough to kill between 10 and 20 humans, which correlates to up to two African bull elephants.This is roughly 15,000 humans per gram.

This extraordinarily lethal poison is very rare. Batrachotoxin is only found in three poisonous frogs from Colombia (genus //Phyllobates//) and three poisonous birds from Papua New Guinea: //Pitohui dichrous//, //Pitohui kirhocephalus// and //Ifrita kowaldi//. Other related toxins are histrionicotoxin and pumiliotoxin, which are found in frog species from the genus //Dendrobates//.

The golden poison frog, like most other poisonous frogs, stores its poison in skin glands. Due to their poison, the frogs taste vile to predators; P. terribilis poison kills whatever eats it, except for a snake, //Liophis epinephelus//. This snake is resistant to the frog's poison, but is not completely immune.

The poisonous frogs are perhaps the only creatures to be immune to this poison. Batrachotoxin attacks the sodium channels of the cells, but the frog has special sodium channels the poison cannot harm.

Since easily purchased foods such as fruit flies and extra-small crickets are not rich in the alkaloids required to produce batrachotoxins, captive frogs do not produce toxins and they eventually lose their toxicity in captivity. In fact, many hobbyists and herpetologists have reported that most dart frogs will not consume ants at all in captivity, though ants constitute the larger portion of their diet in the wild. This is likely due to the unavailability of the natural prey species of ants to captive frog keepers. Though all poison frogs lose their toxicity when deprived of certain foods, and captive-bred golden poison frogs are born harmless, a wild-caught poison frog can retain alkaloids for years. It is not clear which prey species supplies the potent alkaloid that gives golden poison frogs their exceptionally high levels of toxicity, or whether the frogs modify another available toxin to produce a more efficient variant, as do some of the frog's cousins from the genus //Dendrobates//.

Thus, the high toxicity of P. terribilis appears to be due to the consumption of small insects or other arthropods, and one of these may truly be the most poisonous creature on Earth. Scientists have suggested the crucial insect may be a small beetle from the family Melyridae. At least one species of these beetles produces the same toxin found in P. terribilis. The beetle family Melyridae is cosmopolitan. Its relatives in Colombian rainforests could be the source of the batrachotoxins found in the highly toxic Phyllobates frogs of that region.

REFERENCES

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_poison_frog

MİNE AKKAŞ 2/C 101010074

external image p-harfi.png
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external image 221171294.jpg yramid of Giza (called the Pyramid of Khufu and the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the Giza Necropolis bordering what is now El Giza, Egypt . It is the oldest of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World , and the only one to remain largely intact. Egyptologists believe that the pyramid was built as a tomb for fourth dynasty Egyptian Pharaoh Khufu (Cheops in Greek) over an approximately 20 year period concluding around 2560 BC. Initially at 146.5 metres (480.6 ft), the Great Pyramid was the tallest man-made structure in the world for over 3,800 years. Originally, the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface; what is seen today is the underlying core structure. Some of the casing stones that once covered the structure can still be seen around the base. The apex of the pyramid is missing and looks like it was never installed. The casings of the pyramids were removed by the Arabs during 14th century. The sloping angle of the sides is 51 degrees and 51 minutes. Each side is oriented towards one of the cardinal points of the compass that is north, south, east and west. This deserves a place among one of the seven wonders of world for its precision.

external image The%20Great%20Pyramid%20of%20Giza%202.JPG
The Great Pyramid Of Giza


Construction theories There have been varying scientific and alternative theories about the Great Pyramid's construction techniques. Most accepted construction hypotheses are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place. Many alternative, often contradictory, theories have been proposed regarding the pyramid's construction techniques.Many disagree on whether the blocks were dragged, lifted, or even rolled into place. The Greeks believed that slave labour was used, but modern discoveries made at nearby worker's camps associated with construction at Giza suggest it was built instead by tens of thousands of skilled workers. Verner posited that the labor was organized into a hierarchy , consisting of two gangs of 100,000 men, divided into five zaa or phyle of 20,000 men each, which may have been further divided according to the skills of the workers.

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On the north face, is the pyramid's entrance. The King Khufu's chamber is located at the heart of the pyramid. The king's coffin is made of red granite, as like the interior walls of his chamber. 5 boat pits surround Khufu's Pyramid on the south and the east. Two of these are believed to be used by the Pharaoh during his life time. One boat is made into a Boat Museum.

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The entrance of The Pyramid


Entrance Today tourists enter the Great Pyramid via the Robbers' Tunnel dug by workmen employed by Caliph al-Ma'mun around AD 820. The tunnel is cut straight through the masonry of the pyramid for approximately 27 metres (89 ft), then turns sharply left to encounter the blocking stones in the Ascending Passage. Unable to remove these stones, the workmen tunnelled up beside them through the softer limestone of the Pyramid until they reached the Ascending Passage. It is possible to enter the Descending Passage from this point, but access is usually forbidden.














Inside Great Pyramid of Giza



Interior The original entrance to the Great Pyramid is 17 metres (56 ft) vertically above ground level and 7.29 metres (23.9 ft) east of the center line of the pyramid. From this original entrance there is a Descending Passage .96 metres (3.1 ft) high and 1.04 metres (3.4 ft) wide which goes down at an angle of 26° 31'23" through the masonry of the pyramid and then into the bedrock beneath it. After 105.23 metres (345.2 ft) the passage becomes level and continues for an additional 8.84 metres (29.0 ft) to the lower Chamber, which appears not to have been finished. There is a continuation of the horizontal passage in the south wall of the lower chamber; there is also a pit dug in the floor of the chamber. Some Egyptologists suggest this Lower Chamber was intended to be the original burial chamber, but Pharaoh Khufu later changed his mind and wanted it to be higher up in the pyramid. At 28.2 metres (93 ft) from the entrance is a square hole in the roof of the Descending Passage. Originally concealed with a slab of stone, this is the beginning of the Ascending Passage. The Ascending Passage is 39.3 metres (129 ft) long, as wide and high as the Descending Passage and slopes up at almost precisely the same angle. The lower end of the Ascending Passage is closed by three huge blocks of granite, each about 1.5 metres (4.9 ft) long. At the start of the Grand Gallery on the right-hand side there is a hole cut in the wall (and now blocked by chicken wire). This is the start of a vertical shaft which follows an irregular path through the masonry of the pyramid to join the Descending Passage. Also at the start of the Grand Gallery there is a Horizontal Passage leading to the "Queen's Chamber". The passage is 1.1m (3'8") high for most of its length, but near the chamber there is a step in the floor, after which the passage is 1.73 metres (5.7 ft) high.

external image 613px-Giza_pyramid_complex_%28map%29.svg.png
Giza Pyramid Complex



The Great Pyramid is surrounded by a complex of several buildings including small pyramids.The Pyramid Temple, which stoodon the east side of the pyramid and measured 52.2 metres (171 ft) north to south and 40 metres (130 ft) east to west, has almost entirely disappeared apart from the black basalt paving. There are only a few remnants of the causeway which linked the pyramid with the valley and the Valley Temple. The Valley Temple is buried beneath the village of Nazlet el-Samman; basalt paving and limestone walls have been found but the site has not been excavated. The basalt blocks show "clear evidence" of having been cut with some kind of saw with an estimated cutting blade 15 ft in length capable of cutting at a rate of 1 1/2 inches (40 mm) a minute. John Romer suggests this "super saw" may have had copper teeth and weighed up to 300 lbs. He theorizes such a saw could have been attached to a wooden trestle and used in conjunction with possibly vegetable oil, cutting sand, or emery or pounded quartz to cut the blocks and would have required at least a dozen men to operate it.













Building Kheops Giza great pyramid from Inside Out



Referenceshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Pyramid_of_Giza
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=I1WvmB4f3Xg&feature=related
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1wBbNrUGj3I&feature=player_embedded
http://bestin-4o.blogspot.com/2010/04/pyramid-of-giza-wounder-of-world.html

Gamze YILMAZ2/C 101010079







external image p-coloring-page.gifufferfish is also known as blowfish. Because of their slowness and clumsy swimming style, they developed their famous inflatability. Pufferfish puff up when they get scared. While escaping, pufferfish use their highly elastic stomachs and the ability to quickly ingest huge amounts of water (and even air when necessary) to turn themselves into a virtually inedible ball several times their normal size. When they puff up, they excrete tetrodotoxin which almost all pufferfish have is often lethal to fish. Tetrodotoxin is 1,200 times more poisonous than cyanide for humans. Pufferfish have enough poison to kill 30 adult humans and no antidote has been found so far."
external image 12122puffer_fish.jpg

There are more than 120 species of pufferfish in the world. Most of them live in tropical and subtropical ocean waters, but some species live in brackish and even fresh water. Some of them are; the stars and stripes puffer, the dog faced puffer, the figure eight puffer, and more.

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Their size can be between 1-inch-long and 2 feet. All have four, beak like teeth. The diet of the pufferfish includes mostly invertebrates and algae. Large specimens will even crack open and eat clams, mussels, and shellfish with their hard beaks.



Surprisingly, the meat of some pufferfish is considered being delicious. It is very expensive meal which is called fugu in Japan. This meal is prepared by only well trained, licensed chefs. One bad cut means almost certain dead for customer. Annually, many such deaths occur.

REFERENCES:

http://www.pufferfish.net/
http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/fish/pufferfish/
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OkXhC7yzISI

‍ Ezgi AKBULUT

2/B

‍ 101010040


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external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcS4py6v8Q6q96d5TVsh4U-KrhvGXoWcMOtR9vTOSLzcfw2aE8G7INK DOLPHINS

Pink Dolphins are one of the five species of dolphins that make their homes in rivers.The scientific name of the Pink Dolphins from the Amazon is IniaGeoffrensis. They belong to the genus Inea, part of the family Platanistoidea.
Pink Dolphins inhabit the Amazon River, but they can also be found in the Orinoco basins and the upper Madeira River as well.

Physical Description of Pink Dolphins


Pink dolphins can be found in pink, light gray or brown colors but there is not conclusive evidence of the reason why pink dolphins are pink.It could be an adaptation to the river life or caused by the presence of capillaries near the surface of the skin what provide them such impressive color. Additionally, pink dolphins get pinker when they are excited or surprised, resembling blushing in humans.

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The Pink Dolphin is between six and eight feet long, and weighs between 185 and 355 pounds when it is fully grown.The Pink Dolphin has about 30 teeth, all which are in the front, and all which allow them to have their supper through other river life.Pink Dolphins are typically smaller than sea dolphins but they have longer snouts.Most species of river dolphins are almost blind, due to navigating muddy waters, but their brains are extremely large and well developed, however pink dolphins are considered to have a relatively good sight.
Behavior of Pink Dolphins

Pink dolphins appear to be the friendliest of all the river dolphins when approaching to humans.They can swim up to 30 kilometers in one day, although they usually swim slowly looking for food at the bottom of the river.

How do Pink Dolphins Reproduce?


The reproductive system of the Pink Dolphin differs from other types of aquatic life because of the close attachments from the babies. Pink dolphins will take a longer time to mature sexually, and only move to this point when they are at their full body length. There is a mating season, held by the dolphins at the end of the summer and include specific sounds that are made. Males and Females mate to start a gestation period. A dolphin becomes pregnant through the baby being grown for 9 - 12 months inside the womb of the mother. It is born about 75 cm long and weighing a bit more than 1 Kg. When the baby dolphin is born,it will stay attached to it's mother for an average of 3 years.The Pink Dolphin only leaves when it does not need to feel protected and can find a group of dolphins that are of similar age to it. Out of this time frame, an average of one and a half years will be used for nursing off of the mother.
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What do Pink Dolphins Eat?
Pink dolphins eat crabs, catfish, small river fish and even small turtles.As crabs and turtles have to be catch mainly at the bottom of the river, pink dolphins spend a lot of time while swimming looking at the bottom of the river for food.Hunting fish require some techniques like herding, where they round a fish pod to concentrate fish and take turns for feeding. This procedure is largely used by their oceanic cousins.When Pink Dolphins are feeding, they will not eat alone. While they travel alone through the river, once they find a school of fish that seems like a good meal, they will call other dolphins with a specific sound, which will let them know that there is food for everyone to eat.


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References
http://www.squidoo.com/pinkdolphins
http://www.dolphins-world.com/Pink_River_Dolphins.html


AYSUN GÜL
2-B 101010060





43-letterP-q75-339x409.jpg RISON BREAK

Prison-Break-prison-break-638210_1024_768.jpg

Genre


Serial drama
Action
Crime
Thriller

Created by


Paul Scheuring

Starring


Dominic Purcell
Wentworth Miller
Robin Tunney
Peter Stormare
Amaury Nolasco
Marshall Allman
Wade Williams
Paul Adelstein
Robert Knepper
Rockmond Dunbar
Sarah Wayne Callies
William Fichtner
Chris Vance
Robert Wisdom
Danay García
Jodi Lyn O'Keefe
Michael Rapaport

Country of origin

United States

Language(s)


English
Spanish

Prison Break is an American television serial drama created by Paul Scheuring, that was broadcast on the Fox Broadcasting Company for four seasons, from 2005 until 2009. The series revolves around two brothers; one has been sentenced to death for a crime he did not commit, and the other devises an elaborate plan to help his brother escape prison. The series was produced by Adelstein-Parouse Productions, in association with Original Television and 20th Century Fox Television. Along with creator Paul Scheuring, the series is executive produced by Matt Olmstead, Kevin Hooks, Marty Adelstein, Dawn Parouse, Neal H. Moritz, and Brett Ratner who directed the pilot episode. The series' theme music, composed by Ramin Djawadi, was nominated for a Primetime Emmy Award in 2006.




Awards and nominations

Following a successful airing of the series' first thirteen episodes, Prison Break was nominated for its first award, the 2005 People's Choice Award for Favorite New TV Drama. The series won the award in January 2006, beating other nominees in the same category, Commander in Chief and Criminal Minds. In January 2006, the show had two nominations at the 63rd Golden Globe Awards, which were Best Drama Television Series and Best Actor in a Drama Television Series for Wentworth Miller's performance. The show's lead actor, Wentworth Miller, received another nomination for his performance in the first season at the 2005 Saturn Awards for Best Actor on Television. Likewise, the series was nominated for 2005 Saturn Award for Best Network Television Series. At the 2006 Television Critics Association Awards, the show was nominated for Best New Drama Series. Nominations for technical awards include the 2006 Eddie Award for Best Edited One-Hour Series for Commercial Television (Mark Helfrich for the pilot episode), and the 2006 Primetime Emmy award for Outstanding Main Title Theme Music (Ramin Djawadi). In December 2006, Robert Knepper was nominated for the 2006 Satellite Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role in a Series, Mini-Series or Motion Picture Made for Television




SYNOPSIS


MICHAEL SCOFIELD (Wentworth Miller) is a desperate man in a desperate situation. His brother, LINCOLN BURROWS (Dominic Purcell), is on death row and scheduled to die in a few months for an assassination Michael is convinced Lincoln did not commit. With no other options and time winding down, Michael held up a bank to get himself incarcerated alongside his brother in Fox River State Penitentiary. Once he's inside, Michael - a structural engineer with the blueprints for the prison - begins to execute an elaborate plan to break out Lincoln and prove him innocent of this sensational murder.

With the help of his cellmate, SUCRE (Amaury Nolasco), Michael begins to align himself with a disparate group of prisoners, including former mob boss JOHN ABRUZZI (Peter Stormare) and CHARLES WESTMORELAND (Muse Watson), a man some believe to be the infamous skyjacker D.B. Cooper. On the outside Michael has only one ally, his defense attorney and longtime friend, VERONICA DONOVAN (Robin Tunney) - who also happens to be Lincoln's former girlfriend. Meanwhile, Lincoln's 15-year-old son, LJ (Marshall Allman), is now adrift without his uncle Michael's positive influence in his life.

Rounding out the cast are DR. SARA TANCREDI (Sarah Wayne Callies), whom Michael ends up visiting in the prison infirmary more than he should; senior correctional officer BELLICK (Wade Williams), who is determined to keep a close eye on his new prisoner, and the powerful WARDEN POPE (Stacy Keach), who forges a close, almost father-son relationship with the new convict.

PRISON BREAK combines the hope of "The Shawshank Redemption," the camaraderie of "The Longest Yard" and the tense procedure and spectacle of "The Great Escape." This intriguing new series will reveal additional pieces of the puzzle each week as Michael carries out his daring plan to mastermind the ultimate prison break - and solve the far-reaching national-scale conspiracy that landed his brother there in the first place.

REFERENCES

http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_AvNXh3ePD4k/TBr_tF1yAsI/AAAAAAAAAic/Pn0m8c3LNeQ/s1600/1.jpg
http://prisonbreak.fan-sites.org/information.html
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prison_Break
www.youtube.com

İSMAİL CAN ÖZBAY

2-D 101010110