external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcTq7-DQw6uGLkyfC1yZ12jPTDDkT4JwUpNerQqSJHUHYQWD6-FHalsa is a word that inspires an instant reaction in Latin music lovers everywhere. It is the rhythm, the dance, the musical excitement that sends millions of normally sedate non-Latinos to the dance floor where they meet their Latin neighbors, who are too busy enjoying the music to notice.
Birthplace of Salsa:
There’s a lot of debate about the place where salsa was born. One school of thought claims that salsa is just a newer version of older, traditional Afro-Cuban forms and rhythms, so the birthplace must be Cuba. In fact, even today many of the old school Cuban musicians adhere to the belief that there is no such thing as salsa. Tito Puentesummed up their general feeling when asked what he thought of salsa by replying: “I’m a musician, not a cook.”
But there’s little doubt that if salsa had a passport, the date of birth would be the 1960s and stamped under place of birth would be New York, New York.
Evolution of Salsa:
Between 1930 and 1960 there were musicians from Cuba, Puerto Rico, Mexico and South America coming to New York to perform. They brought their own native rhythms and musical forms with them, but as they listened to each other and played music together, the musical influences mixed, fused and evolved.
This type of musical hybridization gave birth to the 1950s creation of the mambo from son, conjunto and jazz traditions. Continuing musical fusion went on to include what we know today as the cha cha cha, rhumba, conga and, in the 1960s, salsa.Of course, this musical hybridization was not a one-way street. The music went back to Cuba, Puerto Rico and South America and continued to evolve there. It evolved a little differently in each place, so that today we have Cuban salsa, Puerto Rican salsa, Colombian salsa, etc. They all have the driving, electric energy that is the hallmark of the salsa form, but they also have the distinctive sounds of their country of origin.
The Name ‘Salsa’:
The salsa that is eaten in Latin America is added to spice up the food. In this vein, without going into the many apocryphal legends about who was first to use the term, DJs, bandleaders and musicians started using (and yelling) Salsa! as they were introducing a particularly energetic musical act or in order to spur the dancers/musicians on to more frenetic activity.
So, much in the same way that Celia Cruz would shout Azucar! (sugar) to spur on the music,Salsa! was used to spice up the music and dancing. The term stuck
Salsa Music:
Salsa has its origins in the Cuban son. With heavy use of percussion (clave, maracas, conga, bongo, tambora, bato, cowbell – to name a few), the instruments and the singers often mimic the call and response patterns of traditional African songs, and then segue into the chorus. Other salsa instruments include vibraphone, marimba, bass, guitar, violin, piano, accordion, flute and a brass section of trombone, trumpet and saxophone. Of course, lately electronics have been added to the mix.

Salsa has a basic 1-2-3, 1-2 rhythm; however, to say that salsa is just one rhythm, or one set of instruments is deceiving. It is more a way of marketing the Latin sound to an urban audience in order to get them onto the dance floor and into the clubs. The tempo is fast and the musical energy exuberant.
Salsa Dance Costumes

Salsa costumes are particularly known for their flexibility and comfort, which goes hand in hand with elegance and style. They are usually full of embroidery work, with sequins hanging around their sleeves and have layers at the ends. These patterns are common for male and female costumes which also have to be coordinated for a performance. These are thus used as one of the famous couples costumes at dance parties as well. There are however, two patterns for these costumes, the regular ones and the professional ones. The regular designs of salsa costumes can be simple slanting, layered skirts for women and formals for men. But professional salsa costumes are designed with a lot of thought and coordination in terms of colors, patterns, etc. These salsa dance costumes, for men and women are mentioned below, so take a look!

Salsa Costumes for Men
If you have ever noticed salsa costumes for males, they have loose shirts which are brightly colored with tight pants. When you are presenting a salsa, you have to make sure you are wearing the right attire to suit the dancing style. Since salsa originated in Cuba and then Puerto Rico, the male costumes use even today have a traditional touch. Thus, traditional Mexican clothes and costumes for men include shirts which are usually full sleeved, silk shirts in colors like yellow, red, black, purple, white, etc., and the pants are simple black or dark brown, made from fitting materials. The shirts also have sequins on them, near the pockets, cuffs and around the chest area, which makes them complement the female partner's dress. The salsa and Latin dance shoes for men are generally the pure black leather formal shoes. Black and white leather, brown leather and many other designs are also available in terms of comfort and support on the wooden dance floor.

Salsa Costumes for Women
The female dress patterns are more versatile than the males, in case of all salsa costumes. This is because, since salsa is an elegant dance form, the audience always have their eyes on the female partner! There are beautiful designs in salsa costumes for girls with a variety ranging from skirts to cocktail dresses. You can have patterns like Crimped Halters, One Shoulder sleeved dresses, Full length and Half length V Sloped dress, O Ringed Halter, Mesh skirts, Tango dresses and Ruffle dresses. These are just a few designs for the ladies, which can be used as casual and professional salsa dresses. These dance costumes for competitions are also brightly colored and very rich in sequin work and embroidery. There are frills and ruffles all over them so they can look attractive, in turns and swings. Salsa shoes for women can be any heeled shoes of your choice. It depends on personal comfort while dancing.

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Who are today's famous salsa dancers? Who are these living legends that influence the future of salsa dancing?

Eddie Torres
When we speak of salsa dancing we have to start in New York City. Eddie Torres was born in Spanish Harlem in 1050 and has dedicated his life to teaching salsa in his own distinctive style.
Johnny Vazquez
When we speak of salsa L.A. Style we speak of Johnny Vazquez. He is a dance phenomenon with an incredible energy that is completely infectious.
Juan Matos
Growing up as a young boy in Santa Domingo, Juan “Pachanga” Matos had dreams of becoming a famous dancer. It wasn't untill 1997 when he was first introduced to the Mambo, that his dreams of dancing professionally began to become a reality.
Frankie Martinez
Frankie Martinez was born in Forest Hills, New York and is of Puerto Rican descent. Martinez is one of the world’s most well know salsa dancer, choreographer and teacher. He is also the founder of the ABAKUA Afro-Latin Dance Company.
Magna Gopal
Magna’s passion for salsa commenced almost immediately after watching the movie Dance with Me. The music and dance inspired her, that she decided to sign up for Cumbria classes to learn the basic timing and steps.
Seaon Bristol
Seaon Bristol is a renowned salsa dancer, choreographer, and instructor living in Los Angeles, California. He is famous for his role of being a male follower, a position traditionally reserved for women.
Leon Rose
Leon Rose is a London born Caribbean dancer, instructor, and choreographer. He is regarded as one of, if not the best, salsa dancer in the United Kingdom. For all the performing that he does, it is the teaching that Leon Rose loves the most.



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external image images?q=tbn:ANd9GcQ2ui_RoMWXU42lwBHlmEOfa6hr4zFCsAZlFYDRQTWwQ0YQu1aTnowflakes are conglomerations of frozen ice crystals which fall through the Earth's atmosphere. They begin as snow crystals which develop when microscopic supercooled cloud droplets freeze. Snowflakes come in a variety of sizes and shapes. Complex shapes emerge as the flake moves through differing temperature and humidity regimes, such that individual snowflakes are nearly unique in structure. Snowflakes encapsulated in rime form balls known as graupel. Snowflakes appear white in color despite being made of clear ice. This is due to diffuse reflection of the whole spectrum of light by the small crystal facets.
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Snow crystals form when tiny supercooled cloud droplets (about 10 μm in diameter) freeze. These droplets are able to remain liquid at temperatures lower than −18 °C (−0 °F), because to freeze, a few molecules in the droplet need to get together by chance to form an arrangement similar to that in an ice lattice; then the droplet freezes around this "nucleus." Experiments show that this "homogeneous" nucleation of cloud droplets only occurs at temperatures lower than −35 °C (−31 °F). In warmer clouds an aerosol particle or "ice nucleus" must be present in (or in contact with) the droplet to act as a nucleus. The particles that make ice nuclei are very rare compared to nuclei upon which liquid cloud droplets form, however it is not understood what makes them efficient. Clays, desert dust and biological particles may be effective,although to what extent is unclear. Artificial nuclei include particles of silver iodide and dry ice, and these are used to stimulate precipitation in cloud seeding.

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Once a droplet has frozen, it grows in the supersaturated environment, which is one where air is saturated with respect to ice when the temperature is below the freezing point. The droplet then grows by deposition of water molecules in the air (vapor) onto the ice crystal surface where they are collected. Because water droplets are so much more numerous than the ice crystals due to their sheer abundance, the crystals are able to grow to hundreds of micrometers or millimeters in size at the expense of the water droplets. This process is known as the Wegner-Bergeron-Findeison process. The corresponding depletion of water vapor causes the droplets to evaporate, meaning that the ice crystals grow at the droplets' expense. These large crystals are an efficient source of precipitation, since they fall through the atmosphere due to their mass, and may collide and stick together in clusters, or aggregates. These aggregates are snowflakes, and are usually the type of ice particle that falls to the ground. Guinness World Records list the world's largest snowflakes as those of January 1887 at Fort Keogh,Montana allegedly one measured 38 cm (15 inches) wide. The exact details of the sticking mechanism remain controversial. Possibilities include mechanical interlocking, sintering, electrostatic attraction as well as the existence of a "sticky" liquid-like layer on the crystal surface
A non-aggregated snowflake often exhibits six-fold radial symmetry. The initial symmetry can occur because the crystalline structure of ice is six-fold. The six "arms" of the snowflake then grow independently, and each side of each arm grows independently. Most snowflakes are not completely symmetric. The micro-environment in which the snowflake grows changes dynamically as the snowflake falls through the cloud, and tiny changes in temperature and humidity affect the way in which water molecules attach to the snowflake. Since the micro-environment (and its changes) are very nearly identical around the snowflake, each arm can grow in nearly the same way. However, being in the same micro-environment does not guarantee that each arm grows the same; indeed, for some crystal forms it does not because the underlying crystal growth mechanism also affects how fast each surface region of a crystal grows.
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Almost all snowflakes are unique
Snowflakes form in a wide variety of intricate shapes, leading to the popular expression that "no two are alike". Although statistically possible, it is very unlikely for any two snowflakes to appear exactly alike due to the many changes in temperature and humidity the crystal experiences during its fall to earth. Initial attempts to find identical snowflakes by photographing thousands of them with a microscope from 1885 onward by Wilson Alwyn Bentley found the wide variety of snowflakes we know about today. It is more likely that two snowflakes could become virtually identical if their environments were similar enough. Matching snow crystals were discovered in Wisconsin in 1988. The crystals were not flakes in the usual sense but rather hollow hexagonal prisms with identical complex snowflakes considered impossible.


A selection of photographs taken by Wilson Bentley (1865–1931

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imagesCA3ZIRAE.jpgE7EN(Seven) is a 1995 American thriller film, with horror and neo-noir elements, written by Andrew Kevin Walker, directed by David Fincher, and distributed by New Line Cinema. It stars Brad Pitt, Morgan Freeman, Gwyneth Paltrow, R. Lee Ermey and Kevin Spacey.

David Mills (Pitt) and William Somerset (Freeman) are police homicide detectives working in a crime-ridden big city. The newly-transferred Mills and the about-to-retire Somerset become deeply involved in the case of a sadistic serial killer. Each meticulously-planned murder corresponds to one of the seven deadly sins of Catholicism: gluttony, greed, sloth, wrath, pride, lust, and envy. The film was released in the United States on September 22, 1995. Grossing $327 million at the box office internationally, Seven was a commercial success, and received very positive reviews from most critics.
In New York, the soon-to-be retiring Detective Lieutenant William R. Somerset (Morgan Freeman) is partnered with the short-tempered Detective David Mills (Brad Pitt), who recently transferred to the department. Somerset is an intelligent, well read, veteran homicide detective who has decided to retire.Mills is a young, smart, ambitious detective anxious to demonstrate his abilities as a big city homicide cop.
The detectives investigate a series of murders relating to the seven deadly sins, such as an obese man who was forced to feed himself to death, representing "Gluttony". They find clues at each crime scene related to other deaths, and believe they are chasing a serial killer. A set of fingerprints found at the scene of the "Greed" murder — the fatal bloodletting of a rich attorney — leads them to an apartment where they find an emaciated man strapped to a bed. Though he initially appears to be dead, it soon is discovered that the man has been kept alive and immobile by the killer for exactly one year to the day. This victim, who dies soon after being found, represents "Sloth". Though unable to learn anything from the insentient victim, the detectives conclude that the killer has planned these crimes for more than a year.
Somerset is eventually invited to meet Mills' wife, Tracy , who is unhappy with Mills' recent move to the city. Somerset becomes Tracy's confidant, and she meets with him after the first few murders. Upon learning that she is pregnant but has not told her husband, Somerset confides in her his fear that the city is no place to start a family, and reveals that he had ended a relationship years earlier after pressuring his girlfriend to have an abortion. Somerset advises her to not tell Mills if she plans to have an abortion; otherwise, if she decides to keep the child, "spoil that kid every chance you get".

Using illegally obtained library records, Somerset and Mills identify a man named John Doe who has frequently checked out books related to the deadly sins. When Doe finds the detectives approaching his apartment, he opens fire on them and flees, chased by Mills. Eventually, Doe gains the upper hand and holds Mills at gunpoint, but then abruptly leaves. Investigation of Doe's apartment finds handwritten volumes of his irrational judgments and clues leading to another potential victim, but no fingerprints. They arrive too late to find their "Lust" victim, a prostitute killed by a man wearing a bladed S&M device, forced by Doe to simultaneously rape and kill her. Some time later, they investigate the death of a young model whose face had been mutilated. Having chosen to kill herself rather than live with a disfigured face, she is the victim of "Pride".
As they return to the police station, Doe unexpectedly appears to them and offers himself for arrest, with the blood of the model and an unidentified victim on his hands. They find out that he has been cutting the skin off his fingers to avoid leaving fingerprints. Through his lawyer, Doe claims he will lead the two detectives to the last two bodies and confess to the crimes, or otherwise will plead insanity. Though Somerset is worried, Mills agrees to the demand. Doe directs the two detectives to a remote desert area far from the city; along the way, he claims that God told him to punish the wicked and reveal the world for the awful place that it is. He also makes cryptic comments toward Mills.

After arriving at the location, a delivery van approaches. Somerset intercepts the driver, leaving Mills and Doe alone. The driver hands over a package he was instructed to deliver at precisely this time and location. While Mills holds Doe at gunpoint, Doe mentions how much he admires him, but does not say why. Somerset opens the package and recoils in horror at the sight of the contents. He races back to warn Mills not to listen to Doe, but the killer reveals that the box contains Tracy's head. Revealing that he purchased information about Mills by posing as a tabloid reporter, Doe claims to represent the sin of "Envy"; he was jealous of Mills' normal life, and killed Tracy after failing to "play husband" with her. He then taunts the distraught Mills with the knowledge that Tracy was pregnant. Somerset is unable to contain Mills as he fires his gun into Doe, becoming the embodiment of "Wrath". After a catatonic Mills is taken away, Somerset is asked where he will be; he replies, "around".

The film ends with the sun setting over the desert, with Somerset quoting Ernest Hemingway's For Whom the Bell Tolls: "'The world is a fine place and worth fighting for.' I agree with the second part."

Here is a video the explanation of John Doe why he was a murderer:

My favourite character is John Doe. I think he is so intelligent and the film is the most appealing one to me. I recommend this film everyone.


the video

the information about film

Aslıhan Taçcı

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pelling bee is a competition where contestants, usually children, are asked to spell English words. The concept is thought to have originated in the United States, and spelling bee events are now held in many countries around the world, along with variants that require the memorisation of a specific text, such as France's "La dictée" and Poland's "Dyktando". Spelling bees are rare to nonexistent in countries whose national language follows more phonemic spelling rules, as compared to the largely historical spelling of the English and French languages.


Historically the word bee has been used to describe a get-together where a specific action is being carried out, like a husking bee, a quilting bee, or an apple bee. Its etymology is unclear but possibly derived from the Old English word bēn for prayer.

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1. The County championship finals shall be an oral competition, with elimination on
a “miss-and-out” basis in the traditional Spelling Bee manner.
2. In competition, after the pronouncer gives the contestant a word the contestant
may also pronounce the word before spelling it, after spelling it, or if she/he
chooses not at all.
3. The contestant may request the pronouncer to re-pronounce the word, define it,
or use it in a sentence. The pronouncer shall grant the request until the judges
agree that the word has been made reasonably clear to the contestant. JUDGES
4. Having started to spell a word, a contestant may stop and start over, retracing
the spelling from the beginning, but in the retracing there can be no change of
letters and their sequence from those first pronounced. If letters and their
sequences are changed in the respelling the speller will be disqualified.
5. Upon missing the spelling of a word, the contestant immediately drops out of the
contest. The next word on the pronouncer’s list is given to the next contestant.
6. When the contestants are reduced to two, the elimination procedure changes. At
that point, when one contestant misspells a word, the other contestant shall be
given an opportunity to spell that same word. If the second contestant spells the
word correctly, plus the next word on the pronouncer’s list, then she/he shall be
declared the winner.
7. If one of the last two spellers misses and the other, after correcting the error,
misspells the new word submitted to her/him then the misspelled new word shall
be referred to the first speller. If the first speller then succeeds in correcting the
error and correctly spells the next word on the pronouncer’s list, then she/he shall
be declared the winner.
8. If both spellers misspell the same word, both shall continue in the contest, and
the one who first misspells the word shall be given a new word to spell. The
contest shall then continue under Rules 7 and 8.
9. Webster’s Third New International Dictionary and 1997 Addenda Section shall
serve as the final authority for the spelling of words. If a word has two or more
accepted spellings, only the spellings set in boldface type and separated by the
word or, and in some cases the word also, at the beginning of the descriptive
manner will be accepted as correct.
10. Contestants can protest a decision until it is her/his turn again.
11. The judges are in complete control of the Bee. Their decision is final on all
12. Contestants are the only ones who can lodge a protest or raise an objection –
members of the audience are not permitted to address the pronouncer or the
judges during the contest.
13. Homonyms will be accepted unless the speller asks for and receives a definition
from the pronouncer or the judges.
14. When spelling, face the pronouncer and the judges.

If you want to see CHAMPIONS AND THEIR WINNING WORDS, look at here http://www.spellingbee.com/champions-and-their-winning-words

Here is an example of spelling bee competition taken from the film Akeelah and The Bee :

Here is an example of spelling bee competition from Turkey :http://oranilkogretim.ankaradogakoleji.com/haber_spelling-bee-yarismasinda-final-heyecani-.html

Emine Altunyıldız
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A smile is a facial expression formed by flexing the muscles near both ends of the mouth.The smile can also be found around the eyes (see 'Duchenne Smiling' below). Among humans, it is an expression denoting pleasure, joy, happiness, or amusement, but can also be an involuntary expression of anxiety, in which case it is known as a grimace. Smiling is something that is understood by everyone despite culture, race, or religion; it is internationally known. Cross-cultural studies have shown that smiling is a means of communicating emotions throughout the world.But there are large differences between different cultures. A smile can also be spontaneous or artificial.

Historical background

Many biologists think the smile originated as a sign of fear. Primalogist Signe Preuschoft traces the smile back over 30 million years of evolution to a "fear grin" stemming from monkeys and apes who often used barely clenched teeth to portray to predators that they were harmless. Biologists believe the smile has evolved differently among species and especially among humans.
Biology is not the only academic discipline that interprets the smile. Those who study kinesics view the smile as an affect display. It can communicate feelings such as: love, happiness, pride, contempt, and embarrassment.
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Social smiling normally develops between 6 and 8 weeks of age.

Development of smiling in infants

Newborns often exhibit smiles within the first three days of their lives, especially while sleeping. However these early smiles are spontaneous and are not a response to outside stimulation. These early smiles are referred to as "reflex smiles." Between 6 and 8 weeks, most babies begin to exhibit "social smiles", meaning the baby will smile at his/her caregivers or in response to stimuli. Most babies laugh between 3 and 4 months.

Social behavior

“Service with a Smile”—This has always been at the core of American businesses since the beginning of the 1900s. Research continually proves that this is true; smiling really does increase attractiveness and likability between humans. In fact, smiling correlates with greater trust, greater financial earnings, and increased interpersonal cooperation. In a time of increased stress due to cutbacks, high debt, and increasing family issues, employees are often required to work with a distressed public. However, a smile tends to convey respect, patience, empathy, hospitality and compassion. For example, when an employee smiles at a stressed customer, and exhibits excellent listening skills, most of the time, there is a report of total satisfaction. Research also reports that people receive more help when they smile. Even the smile of a stranger produces more “Good Samaritan” effects on the receiver. When you smile, even memory retrieval of your name is enhanced as is shown in neuroscience research.
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In social contexts, smiling is related to laughter. In this situation, two kinds of smiling are analyzed:
  • Smiling is not a pre-laughing device and is a common pattern for paving the way to laughter;
  • Smiling can be used as a response to laughter in the previous turn. Smiling and laughter have different functions in the order of sequence in social situations.

Cultural differences

While most often, smiling is perceived as a positive emotion, there are many countries that perceive smiling as a negative expression and consider it unwelcoming. Too much smiling can be viewed as a sign of shallowness or dishonesty. The Japanese may smile when they are confused or angry. In other parts of Asia, people may smile when they are embarrassed. Some people may smile at others to indicate a friendly greeting. A smile may be reserved for close friends and family members. Many people in Russia consider smiling at strangers in public to be unusual and even suspicious behavior. Yet many Americans smile freely at strangers in public places (although this is less common in big cities). Some Russians believe that Americans smile in the wrong places; some Americans believe that Russians don't smile enough. In Southeast Asian cultures, a smile is frequently used to cover emotional pain or embarrassment. Vietnamese people may tell the sad story of how they had to leave their country but end the story with a smile.
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A man smiling, with dimples.


Cheek dimples are visible indentations of the epidermis, caused by underlying flesh, which form on some people's cheeks, especially when they smile. Dimples are genetically inherited and are a dominant trait. A rarer form is the single dimple, which occurs on one side of the face only. Anatomically, dimples may be caused by variations in the structure of the facial muscle known as zygomaticus major. Specifically, the presence of a double or bifid zygomaticus major muscle may explain the formation of cheek dimples. This bifid variation of the muscle originates as a single structure from the zygomatic bone. As it travels anteriorly, it then divides with a superior bundle that inserts in the typical position above the corner of the mouth. An inferior bundle inserts below the corner of the mouth.

Real smiles vs. fake smiles

A smile does indeed have great power and great social rewards. However, it has been proven that an authentic smile is much more effective than a counterfeit smile. A smile is an outward sign of perceived self-confidence and internal satisfaction. It seems to have a favorable influence upon others and makes one likeable and more approachable.
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Guillaume Duchenne, discoverer of the Duchenne smile.

Duchenne smiling

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A Duchenne smile engages the muscles around the mouth and eyes.
Although many different types of smiles have been identified and studied, researchers (e.g. Freitas-Magalhães) have devoted particular attention to an anatomical distinction first recognized by French physician Guillaume Duchenne. While conducting research on the physiology of facial expressions in the mid-19th century, Duchenne identified two distinct types of smiles. A Duchenne smile involves contraction of both the zygomatic major muscle (which raises the corners of the mouth) and the orbicularis oculi muscle (which raises the cheeks and forms crow's feet around the eyes). A non-Duchenne smile involves only the zygomatic major muscle. “Research with adults initially indicated that joy was indexed by generic smiling, any smiling involving the raising of the lip corners by the zygomatic major…. More recent research suggests that smiling in which the muscle around the eye contracts, raising the cheeks high (Duchenne smiling), is uniquely associated with positive emotion.”

Pan-Am smile

The Pan-Am smile, also known as the "Botox smile", is the name given to a "fake smile", in which only the zygomatic major muscle is voluntarily contracted to show politeness. It is named after the airline Pan American World Airways, whose flight attendants would always flash every jet-setter the same, perfunctory smile.

Hidden emotions within smiling

Happiness is most often the motivating cause of a smile. However, there are many exceptions, especially among animals. The exposure of teeth, which may bear a resemblance to a smile, is often used as a threat or warning display—known as a snarl—or a sign of submission. For chimpanzees, it can also be a sign of fear. The study of smiles is a part of gelotology, psychology, and linguistics, comprising various theories of affect, humor, and laughter. Smiling can also be interpreted as nervousness in an animal—humans also smile as a result of nervousness, embarrassment and even frustration. In one study, created to investigate the correspondence between perceived meanings of smiles and their morphological and dynamic characteristics, it was found that “perceived embarrassed/nervous smiles had greater amplitude, longer duration…related to those perceived as polite. Work by John Gottman has shown that smiling and other such expressions of positive emotions are important to shaping relationships with others; researchers could predict the quality of marriages many years into the future based on the number of such interactions (see also agreeableness).


Zeynep Taşavlı

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Among films I have watched up to now, it is the most noteworthy film for me. The film consists of mainly two characters as Dean and Sam. They are brothers who adherent to one another emotionally. Dean is elder than Sam. The main thing adhering to each other is their father. Their father trained them to be warriors against supernatural evil and
these two brothers search for their missing father. Generally, supernatural events occur in every part of Supernatural and i think it is really breathtaking.
Sam has special powers. Because of the fact that the leader devil killed their mother when Sam was a child, they both bear devils a grudge. Two brothers engage in saving people from similar things such as vampires, werewolves and devils. I am looking forward to watching its new part because of enjoying films with horror theme like this. Adding that scenes which is full of horror, there are comic scenes particularly related to Dean. It is so successful that it has reached 7th season.

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Dean Winchester (Jensen Ackles)
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Mini Biography
Jensen Ross Ackles (born March 1, 1978) is an American actor. He is known for his roles in television as Eric Brady in Days of our Lives, which earned him several Daytime Emmy Award nominations, as well as Alec/X5-494 in Dark Angel and Jason Teague in Smallville. Ackles currently stars as Dean Winchester on the CW series Supernatural.
Sam Winchester ( Jared Padalecki )
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Mini Biography
Jared started to take acting lessons when he was 12. Then, he won the "Claim to Fame" Contest in 1999 and got to appear on the Teen Choice awards. Jared lived in San Antonio, Texas and attended James Madison High School. He was named a candidate for the year 2000 Presidential Scholars Program. After graduating in the year 2000, he moved to Los Angeles, California to pursue an acting career. He played "Dean Forester" on "Gilmore Girls" (2000) on the WB starting in 2000 and ending in 2005. From 2005 to now, he has portrayed "Sam Winchester" on the CW's "Supernatural" (2005), which is currently airing its seventh season (2012). He also has several feature film credits.


This television drama is about two brothers, Sam and Dean, who were raised by their father, John, to hunt and kill all things that go "bump in the night" after his wife, Mary, was murdered by something supernaturally evil when the boys were young. 22 years later the brothers set out on a journey, fighting evil along the way, to find their recently missing father who, when they finally meet up with, reveals he knows what killed their mother, a demon, and has found a way to track and kill it. Meanwhile, Sam starts to develop frightening abilities that include death visions, visions of people dying before it actually happens. These visions are somehow connected to the demon who murdered his mother and it's mysterious plans that seem to be all about Sam. When their father dies striking a deal with the very same devil that had killed his wife, the brothers, now alone and without their mentor...
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When Sam and Dean Winchester were just kids, their mother was horribly murdered in front of their father by something "supernatural". Their lives were never the same again. After their mother's murder, their father took an interest in the supernatural and the unexplained and raised the boys as warriors with skills to fight back against the unknown and protect the innocent. 22 years later, with Sam and Dean grown up, their father suddenly disappears on a suppose routine supernatural hunt. Sam and Dean search for their father and along the way help anyone with a supernatural problem with the help from their dad's journal that contains most of his knowledge about the supernatural that he had accumulated over his 22 years of none-stop obsessive hunting.

22 years ago, John Winchester awoke in the middle of the night to find his wife, Mary, pinned to the ceiling, bleeding from the stomach, and set aflame. He managed to get his sons, 4-year-old Dean and six-month old Sam, out of the house, but Mary was killed leaving John devastated and determined for revenge against the supernatural thing that killed her. Present day, John has raised his sons to fight supernatural forces. Demons, ghosts, even cryptologic creatures. However, they can't find the thing that killed Mary. With his constant clashes with his father, Sam becomes disenchanted with the hunter's lifestyle, and goes away to college, where he falls in love with a girl named Jessica Moore. After years of estrangement, Dean shows up at Sam and Jess' one night to ask for Sam's help to look for their father who had gone missing during a "hunting trip". At first, Sam is reluctant to be roped back into the world of hunting and prefers his "safe" normal life he had managed to make for himself with Jess, but when he finds Jess dead through the same M.O. as their mother, he sets out with Dean to find their father by following any supernatural leads they can find across the country, hoping they track him down.



2-A 101010004

external image 6745.jpgShort Film

A short film is any film that tries to tell its story in a short time.Even though there is no consensus about its duration.

The Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences defines a short film as "an original motion picture that has a running time of 40 minutes or less, including all credits".


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Cinema started with short films. According to records, the first short film is 'Workers Leaving the Lumière Factory' by Lumiere Brothers.

When we look at Turkish cinema, the first short film is 'Collapse of Russian Monument in Ayestefanos'. In the begining,directors chose short film because of financal problems.With the developing technologies and appereance of film studios, the number of short films decreased considerably.The directors who tend to make movies with big budgets cooperated with big studios.This also made directors unqualified.

Un Chien Andalou is a sixteen minute silent surrealist short film produced in France by the Spanish director Luis Buñuel and artist Salvador Dalí.

After digital cameras and computers stepped in the industry, this new wave changed everything. Young directors percieved short film as a bridge that helps them make their way to their first motion picture.But it should not be like this. Short film is free from market and it provides directors with space in which they can try new techniques.

A young African boy with a haunting back story starts school in Ireland, and finds out quickly exactly what it means to be the new kid.external image %C3%87a%C4%9Fan-Irmaktan-Bir-ormana-a%C4%9F%C4%B1t-yaz%C4%B1s%C4%B1.jpg

As Çağan Irmak once said 'For me, short film is being free more than ever for a short time. An endless freedom for a short time...'





Serkan Yeşilyurt



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Subliminal messagesare words, images, or sounds that might appear in television or radio commercials, TV shows or movies, print ads or recorded music. Usually when subliminal messages are seen or heard, they’re not recognized for what they are. In fact they may be ignored by the conscious brain and be beyond the level of conscious perception. When you receive a subliminal message, you can’t realize it, but it has its effect on your brain nonetheless. These messages can be received in a variety of ways, from text to sound to pictures, all of which send a signal to your brain on a level your conscious mind doesn’t pick up on.

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The Conscious Mind and Subliminal Messages

The conscious mind represents normal waking awareness and provides the abilities for reasoning, analysis and focusing on a specific thought as directed. The conscious mind also acts as a filtering or censoring agent that will either accept or refuse certain ideas that are presented to it.

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The Subconscious Mind and Subliminal Messages

Subconscious mind acts as a storehouse for all the events and experiences encountered throughout a lifetime. It is almost the reverse of the conscious mind in that point. The subconscious is only capable of very simple reasoning and most of what is entered into it is interpreted almost literally.

It is not able to analyze what is submitted to it but is more than capable of remembering it. This can be either of benefit or harmful to your well-being and a past experience that had an emotional effect may still influence the present. If past experiences, either positive or negative remain unaddressed in the subconscious then they may have an effect that is projected into the present. The subconscious will attempt to maintain the current state of programming for a person. If they have had past experiences that have programmed the subconscious to expect lack, ill-health, loneliness or many other characteristics, and then the subconscious will attempt to keep the person in such a state.


1. Visual Subliminal Messages

Text is one way in which to send a subliminal message. There have been studies performed where the name of a product was flashed on a computer screen in front of subjects for 24 milliseconds, almost too fast for the naked eye to detect and decode. However, the subconscious mind was able to find that signal and work its message into their brain, leaving them wanting that particular brand when they felt the need.

Subliminal messages can also be sent through images with a logo, word, symbol or action depicted within it that eludes conscious perception. In much the same way as text can be sent subliminally, you can also flash an image fast enough that the conscious mind won’t pick up on it, but the rest of your brain has time to decipher. If that image has the appropriate visual or message, it can have quite a powerful effect on the brain. It can even affect your mood quite dramatically; if you get a subliminal message of something happy, you’ll be happy and sad when you see something horrific or depressing.



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Toblerone originated in Bern, Switzerland – A city whose name is rumored to mean, “City of bears”. When you look at it again you will find a bear in the logo

2) FedEx

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You would say you have seen it thousand times but just to make you notice an arrow formed between the letters “E” and “X” conveying speed, direction and reliability of this amazing courier service.

3) amazon.com

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This famous logo is extremely clean and simple but this arrow might not look like more than a smile to you. It says that amazon.com has everything from a to z and it also represents the smile brought to the customer’s face.


the map of Australia
the map of Australia
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At first glance the logo may look like a simple picture of a young girl doing her yoga exercise but if you watch it carefully the body posture is creating the Australia Map.


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This logo is one of the famous stores in Paris – Galeries Lafayette. You will notice that its logo represents Paris with its joined letters “t” to form Eiffel Tower.


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When “Google” celebrated its 25 years of TCP/IP it revealed its logo with hidden year “2008”
2. Auditory Subliminal Messages

Audio or sound is one of the different ways of sending subliminal messages, however similar principles are used in sending subliminal messages. With these, you can back mask a message into a regular piece of music or sound; back masking is a way to record a sound, so it runs backwards when the rest of the track is played normally. This has the effect of masking the sound sufficiently so it’s not immediately evident when the message is played, but the subconscious mind picks up on it anyway, working out what the real message is, giving it added power.

Audio subliminal messages present repeated phrases. These cause a particular response played in the background. These are usually nature sounds, nonsensical speech, or music in the foreground. Some of these recordings contain audio stimuli played at below or above the normal hearing ranges. Some of them are barely audible.

**Hidden subliminal messages in cartoons and movies**

There are many cartoons that have subliminal messages embedded in them. In the ever-famous Disney production of Aladdin, they discovered that in one of the musical while Aladdin was singing with the Princess, if the song is played backwards, it will reveal a phrase something like “Good girls take your clothes off”. Ok, this is totally shocking. All these while, your kid has been re-watching Aladdin time and again, singing to the music and songs in Aladdin. There are plenty of subliminal messages in other Disney production. In one of the episode of Pokemon, Meath said, “If that’s the democratic way, I am voting Republican.” Sure, the government has decided to do some brainwashing on our kids too. When children watch cartoons, they pay attention to what is being said. When these things are said whilst watching cartoons, the child’s subconscious mind is exposed to auditory subliminal messages that they might not be able to discover but eventually become a part of their lives. Other examples would include Rugrats where they believed that the idea of lesbianism is promoted here in Phil and Lil’s mum, Betty Deville, who always wears a bandana, hangs out with feminine woman, loves sports and yells a lot.







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Sleepwalking is a serious sleep disorder which belongs to the parasomnia family. It is also called as somnambulism. Sleepwalking is all of the activities which are performed during the sleeping. These movements include not only walking but also sitting up in bed, walking to the bathroom, violent gestures, and cleaning, cooking, driving, having sex etc. It may even cause homicide. The people who have sleepwalking disorder are called as sleepwalkers.
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Although its legitimacy is not clear, sometimes people perform complex behaviors apart from simple, repeated behaviors during sleeping. The sleepwalkers do not have exact conscious; so they often have little or no memory of the event. Their eyes open but their expressions are lifeless and glazed over. Sleepwalking can continue from 30 seconds to 30 minutes.

Treatment for this disorder there are some drugs, such as benzodiazepines, clonazepam, and tricyclic antidepressants. To reduce risks of this sleepwalking disorder it is also sharply recommended that sleepwalkers should put away dangerous items and lock doors and windows before sleep. Beside these precautions, it is also necessary good sleep hygiene and avoiding sleep deprivation. There are conflicting ideas on whether it is dangerous to wake a sleepwalker or not. Some scientists state that sleepwalkers should be guided back to bed without waking them. On the other hand; some scientists assert that waking a sleepwalker may cause in their disorientation, but it is not harmful.


İmren Maldır
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Salsa is a Latin dance form with origins from the Cuban Son (circa 1920s) and Afro-Cuban dance (specifically Afro-Cuban rumba) formally known as the Mark Lawn.[citation needed] It is generally associated with the salsa music style, although it may be danced under other types of Latin music.[citation needed]
Salsa is normally a partner dance, although there are forms such as a line dance form "Salsa suelta",[1] where the dancers dance individually and a round dance form "Rueda de Casino" where multiple couples exchange partners in a circle. Salsa can be improvised or performed with a set routine.
Salsa is a popular social dance throughout Latin America as well as in North America, Europe, Australia, and some countries in Asia and the Middle East.

Salsa dance movements originate from the Cuban Son dancing of the 1940s more specifically through the beat of Son Montuno with strong influences from the dance of Danzon,Mambo(dance)Mambo,Guaguanco and other Afro-Cuban folkloric dancing.
Today there are many various styles of salsa dancing because of geographical dispersion and cultural syncretism. The most well-known styles are Cali-style (from Colombia), Cuban-style ("Casino"), LA-style, New York-style, and Puerto Rican-style.
Salsa Basic Step, NY Style On2, Follower's Timing
There are a few basic steps of Salsa. The most common is the three weight changes (or steps) in each four-beat measure. The beat on which one does not step might contain a tap or kick, or weight transfer may simply continue with the actual step not occurring until the next beat. The option chosen depends upon individual choice and upon the specific style being danced. One of the steps is called a "break," which involves a change in direction. Different styles of Salsa are often differentiated by the timing of the break step (On Beat "Downbreak on 1" or Off Beat "Up beat on 2"). After 6 weight changes in 8 beats, the basic step cycle is complete. While dancing, the basic step can be modified significantly as part of the improvisation and stylings of the people dancing.
In many styles of Salsa dancing, as a dancer changes weight by stepping, the upper body remains level and nearly unaffected by the weight changes. Caught in the middle are the hips which end up moving quite a bit —- famously known as the "Cuban hip movement." Perhaps ironically, the Cuban Casino style of Salsa dancing actually has significant amounts of movement above the waist, with up-and-down shoulder movements and shifting of the ribcage.
The arms are used by the "lead" dancer, to communicate or signal the "follower," either in "open " or "closed" position. The open position requires the two dancers to hold one or both hands, especially for moves that involve turns, putting arms behind the back, or moving around each other, to name a few examples. In the closed position, the leader puts the right hand on the follower's back, while the follower puts the left hand on the leader's shoulder.
In the original Latin America form, the forward/backward motion of Salsa is done in diagonal or sideways with the 3-step weight change intact.
In some styles of salsa, such as LA and New York style, the dancers remain in a slot or line (switching places), while in some Latin American styles, such as Cuban style, the dancers circle around each other, sometimes in 3 points. This circular style is especially true for casino rueda[2] dancing.
Salsa Dancing Locations
Salsa dances are commonly held in night clubs, ballrooms, restaurants, and outside, especially if part of an outdoor festival. Salsa dancing is an international dance that can be found in most metropolitan cities in the world.[3] Festivals are held annually, often called a Salsa Congress, in various host cities aimed to attract variety of salsa dancers from other cities and countries. The events bring dancers together to share their passion for the dance, build community, and to share moves and tips with each other. These events usually include salsa dance performers, live salsa music, workshops, open dancing, and contests.


Dancing Salsa in Mexico
Music suitable for dancing ranges from about 150 bpm (beats per minute) to around 250 bpm, although most dancing is done to music somewhere between 160–220 bpm. Every Salsa composition involves complex African percussion based around the Clave Rhythm (which has four types), though there can be moments when the clave is hidden for a while, often when quoting Charanga, Changüí and Bomba. The key instrument that provides the core groove of a salsa song is the clave. It is often played with two wooden sticks (called clave) that are hit together. Every instrument in a Salsa band is either playing with the clave (generally: congas, timbales, piano, tres guitar, bongos, claves (instrument), strings) or playing independent of the clave rhythm (generally: bass, maracas, güiro, cowbell). Melodic components of the music and dancers can choose to be in clave or out of clave at any point. However it is taboo to play or dance to the wrong type of clave rhythm (see salsa music). While dancers can mark the clave rhythm directly, it is more common to do so indirectly (with, for example, a shoulder movement). This allows the dancing itself to look very fluent as if the rest of the body is just moving untouched with the legs.
For salsa, there are four types of clave rhythms, the 3-2 and 2-3 Son claves being the most important, and the 3-2 and 2-3 Rumba claves. Most salsa music is played with one of the Son claves, though a Rumba clave is occasionally used, especially during Rumba sections of some songs. As an example of how a clave fits within the 8 beats of a salsa dance, the beats of the 2-3 Son clave are played on the counts of 2, 3, 5, the "and" of 6, and 8.
There are other aspects outside of the Clave that help define Salsa rhythm: the cowbell, the Montuno rhythm and the Tumbao rhythm.
The cowbell is played on the core beats of Salsa, 1, 3, 5 and 7. The basic Salsa rhythm is quick, quick, slow, quick, quick, slow, in other words, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6 and 7, which are very similar to the beats of the cowbell. Recognizing the rhythm of the cowbell helps one stay on Salsa rhythm.
The Montuno rhythm is a rhythm that is often played with a piano. The Montuno rhythm loops over the 8 counts and is useful for finding the direction of the music. By listening to the same rhythm, that loops back to the beginning after eight counts, one can recognize which count is the first beat of the music.
Tumbao is a rhythm in salsa that is played with the conga drums. It sounds like: "cu, cum.. pa... cu, cum... pa". Its most basic pattern is played on the beats 2,3,4,6,7, and 8. Tumbao rhythm is helpful for learning to dance contra-tiempo ("On2"). The beats 2 and 6 are emphasized when dancing On2, and the Tumbao rhythm heavily emphasizes those beats as well.




Schizophrenia is a complex mental disorder that makes it difficult to:
  • Tell the difference between real and unreal experiences
  • Think logically
  • Have normal emotional responses,
  • Behave normally in social situations

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Schizophrenia is a complex illness. Mental health experts are not sure what causes it. However, genetic factors appear to play a role.
  • Certain environmental events may trigger schizophrenia in people who are genetically at risk for it.
  • You are more likely to develop schizophrenia if you have a family member with the disease.
Schizophrenia affects both men and women equally. It usually begins in the teen years or young adulthood, but may begin later in life. It tends to begin later in women, and is more mild.
Childhood-onset schizophrenia begins after age 5. Childhood schizophrenia is rare and can be difficult to tell apart from other developmental disorders of childhood, such as autism.
Schizophrenia symptoms usually develop slowly over months or years. Sometimes you may have many symptoms, and at other times you may only have a few.
People with any type of schizophrenia may have difficulty keeping friends and working. They may also have problems with anxiety, depression, and suicidal thoughts or behaviors.
At first, you may have the following symptoms:
  • Irritable or tense feeling
  • Difficulty sleeping
  • Difficulty concentrating
As the illness continues, problems with thinking, emotions and behavior develop, including:
  • Lack of emotion (flat affect)
  • Strongly held beliefs that are not based in reality (delusions)
  • Hearing or seeing things that are not there (hallucinations)
  • Problems paying attention
  • Thoughts "jump" between unrelated topics ( “loose associations”)
  • Bizarre behaviors
  • Social isolation
Symptoms can vary, depending on the type of schizophrenia you have.
Paranoid schizophrenia symptoms may include:
  • Anxious
  • Angry or argumentative
  • False believes that others are trying to harm you or your loved ones.
Disorganized schizophrenia symptoms may include:
  • Problems with thinking and expressing ideas clearly
  • Childlike behavior
  • Showing little emotion
Catatonic schizophrenia symptoms may include:
  • Lack of activity
  • Muscles and posture may be rigid
  • Grimaces or other odd expressions on the face
  • Does not respond much to other people
Undifferentiated schizophrenia symptoms may include symptoms of more than one other type of schizophrenia.
People with residual schizophrenia have some symptoms, but not as many as those who are in a full-blown episode of schizophrenia.
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During an episode of schizophrenia, you may need to stay in the hospital for safety reasons.
Antipsychotic medications are the most effective treatment for schizophrenia. They change the balance of chemicals in the brain and can help control symptoms/
These medications are usually helpful, but they can cause side effects. Many of these side effects can be improved, and should not prevent people from seeking treatment for this serious condition.
Common side effects from antipsychotics may include:
  • Sleepiness (sedation)
  • Dizziness
  • Weight gain
  • Increased chance of diabetes and high cholesterol
  • Feelings of restlessness or "jitters"
  • Slowed movements
  • Tremor
Long-term use of antipsychotic medications may increase your risk for a movement disorder called tardive dyskinesia. This condition causes repeated movements that you cannot control, especially around the mouth. Call your doctor right away if you think you may have this condition.
When schizophrenia does not improve with several antipsychotics, the medication clozapine can be helpful. Clozapine is the most effective medication for reducing schizophrenia symptoms, but it also tends to cause more side effects than other antipsychotics.
Schizophrenia is a life-long illness. Most people with this condition need to stay on antipsychotic medication for life.
Supportive therapy may be helpful for many people with schizophrenia. Behavioral techniques, such as social skills training, can be used to improve social and work functioning. Job-training and relationship building classes are important.
Family members of a person with schizophrenia should be educated about the disease and offered support. Programs that emphasize outreach and community support services can help people who lack family and social support.
Family members and caregivers are often encouraged to help people with schizophrenia stick to their treatment.
It is important that the person with schizophrenia learns how to:
  • Take medications correctly and how to manage side effects
  • Notice the early signs of a relapse and what to do if symptoms return
  • Cope with symptoms that occur even while taking medication. A therapist can help.
  • Manage money
  • Use public transportation
Possible Complications
Having schizophrenia increases your risk for:
  • Developing a problem with alcohol or drugs: This is called a substance abuse problem. Using alcohol or other drugs increases the chances your symptoms will return.
  • Physical illness: People with schizophrenia may become physically sick, because of an inactive lifestyle and side effects from medication. A physical illness may not be detected because of poor access to medical care and difficulties talking to health care providers.
  • Suicide
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There is no known way to prevent schizophrenia.
Symptoms can be prevented by taking medication. You should take your medication exactly as your doctor told you to. Symptoms will return if you stop taking your medication.
Always talk to your doctor if you are thinking about changing or stopping your medications. See your doctor or therapist regularly.



Audio or sound is one of the different ways of sending subliminal messages, however similar principles are used in sending subliminal messages. With these, you can back mask a message into a regular piece of music or sound; back masking is a way to record a sound, so it runs backwards when the rest of the track is played normally. This has the effect of masking the sound sufficiently so it’s not immediately evident when the message is played, but the subconscious mind picks up on it anyway, working out what the real message is, giving it added power.Audio subliminal messages present repeated phrases. These cause a particular response played in the background. These are usually nature sounds, nonsensical speech, or music in the foreground. Some of these recordings contain audio stimuli played at below or above the normal hearing ranges. Some of them are barely audible.